Sunday, June 20, 2010

Important Amendments in Indian Constitution

1. First Amendment Act, 1951 : inserted articles – 31-A , 31-B. Added 9th schedule.

2. 24th Amendment Act : - Inserting Cl (4) in Art. 13; amended Art. 368. The object of the amendment was to clarify that the Parliament has the power to amend every part of the constitution. The intention was to wipe out the effect of Golak Nath case, After the Amendment the President is bound to asent to a constitution Amendment Bill.

3. 25th Amendment Act: - The jurisdiction of the courts to determine the adequacy of compensation on acquisition of property was taken away;

4. 35th Amendment Act: - Added 10th Schedule; Sikkim was made an associate state.

5. 36th Amendment Act: - Sikkim was made a full fledged state.

6. 42nd Amendment Act: - The power of judicial review of Courts was restricted; DPSP were given precedence over Fundamental Rights; Fundamental Duties were added; Term of Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha was raised from five to six years; Preamble was altered to add Socialist, Secular and integrity; The validity of the Constitutional Amendment cannot be questioned in any court – 368-(4); Quorum for the lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha removed. Established supremacy of parliament.

7. 44th Amendment Act: - The Fundamental Right to Property was abolished; the term of Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies of the State reduced to 5 years. It was provided that disputes relating to the election of the President and the Vice President shall be decided by the Supreme Court and that of election of member of Parliament and the State legislature shall be decided by the High Court. The National Emergency shall not be proclaimed except on the written recommendation of the Cabinet. The right to Life and personal liberty and he liberty of the press was restored.

8. 52nd Amendment Act:- Provision relating to the anti-defection law were added in the constitution.

9. 61st Amendment Act:- The minimum age limit prescribed to get voting right was reduced to 18 years from 21 years.

10. 69th Amendment Act: - The UT of Delhi was named as National Capital Territory of Delhi. It also provided for a 70 members state assembly.

11. 71st Amendment Act: - Nepali, Konkani and Manipuri languages included in the 8th Schedule.

12. 73rd Amendment Act: - Provision relating to the constitution, elections, finance and functions of Panchyat Raj Bodies.

13. 74th Amendment Act: - Provision relating to the constitution, elections, finance and functions of Municipalities.

14. 86th Amendment Act: - The new Art. 21-A deals with Right to Education to all children of the age six to fourteen years was added.

15. 87th Amendment Act: - The basis of delimitation of constituencies to be the population of 2001 in place of 1991.

16. 89th Amendment Act: - Provision for constitution of separate National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

17. 91st Amendment Act: - The strength of Council of Ministers both at the centre and in states, to be fixed at 15% of the total membership of the lower house.

18. 92nd Amendment Act: - inclusion of Maithili, Bodo, Dogri and Santhali.

19. 93rd Amendment Act: - Reservation of admission in private unaided educational institutions for students belonging to SC/ St and OBC.

20. 94th Amendment Act: - Free Bihar from the obligation of having a tribal welfare minister and extended the same provision to Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. This provision will now be applicable to the M.P. and Orissa.

21. 98th Amendment Act: - is related to the constitution of National Judicial Commission.

Monday, June 14, 2010

Formation of Internatioanl Organisation

1. F.A.O. - 16Oct, 1945 H.Q - Rome

2. I.L.O. - 11April, 1919 H.Q. - Geneva

3. W.H.O. - 7 April , 1948 H.Q. - Geneva

4. U.N.E.S.C.O. - 14 Nov, 1946 H.Q. - Paris Head - Irina Bokova

5. I.C.A.O. - 4 April , 1947 H.Q. - Montreal (Geneva)

6. W.M.O. - 19 March, 1951 H.Q. - Geneva

7. U.N.I.C.E.F. - 11Dec, 1946 H.Q. - New York

8. I.M.O. - 1948

9. I.A.E.A - 29July, 1957 H.Q. - Vienna Head - Yukiya Amano

10. U.N.H.R.C. - 1 Jan, 1951 H.Q. - Geneva

11. World Bank - 1944

12. IMF - 27Dce 1945.

13. U.N.I.D.O - 1967

14. W.T.O. - 1 Jan, 1995

15. W.I.P.O. - 1967 H.Q. - Geneva

16. Arab League - 22 March, 1945 H.Q. - Egypt (Kahira)

17. S.A.A.R.C - 8 Dec, 1985 H.Q. - Kathmandu

18. O.P.E.C. - 1960 H.Q. - Vienna

19. Commonwealth - 1931 H.Q. - London Head - Kamlesh Sharma

20. NAM - 1961 Belgrade

21. Red Cross - 1863 by Henry Dunant H.Q. - Geneva

22. ASEAN 1967 - Jakarta

23. Amnesty International - 1961. Head - Salil Shetty

24. APEC - 1981 H.Q. - Singapore

25. G-8 - 22Dec, 1985

26. INTERPOL - 1923 H.Q. - Lyon (France)

27. G-15 - 1Sept. 1989 H.Q. - Belgrade

28. G - 77 - 1964

29. NATO - 4 April , 1949 H.Q. - Brussels (Belgium)

30. A.D.B. - 1966 H.Q. - Manila

Sunday, June 13, 2010

Important books and journals before 1947

1. Nil- Darpan - Dinbandhu Mitra.

2. New India – Bipin Pal

3.New India – Annie Besant

4. Commonweal – Annie Besant

5. Kesri – B.G.Tilak.

6. Maratha – B. G. Tilak.

7. A Nation In Making – S. N. Banerjee.

8. Poverty and Unbritish Rule in India – Dada Bhai Naroji.

9. Economic History of India – R. C. Dutt.

10. The Nations Voice – C. Raja Gopalchari.

11. Conquest of Self – Mahatma Gandhi.

12. Hind Swaraj – Mahatma Gandhi

13. Indian Opinion – Mahatma Gandhi. South Africa in English

14. Young India – Mahatma Gandhi

15. Al – Hilal- Abul Kalam Azad.

16. Ghulam Giri – Jyotibha Phule

17. Bande Matram – Aurobindo Ghosh

18. New Lamps for Old – Aurobindo Ghosh

19. India and the World – J.L.Nehru.

20. Discovery of India – J.L.Nehru.

21. My Experiment with Truth – Mahatma Gandhi.

22. Harijan - Mahatma Gandhi in 1933

23. Navjivan - Mahatma Gandhi - in 1919

Indian Tress and Herbs with Scientific names

1. Atis - Aconitum hetrophyllumwell

2. Pattis - Aconitum palmatum

3. Metha Patis - Aconitum voiloceum

4. Bankakri - Podophyllum hexandrum

5. Banakhasa - Viola Odorata

6. Ratanjot - Calusema Pentaphyle

7. Herd - Terminalia chebula

8. Bahera - Terminalia belerica roxb

9. Brahmi - Centell Asiatica

10. Tirmur - Zantosylum alatum

11. Tulsi - Ocimum Sanctum

12. Peepal - Ficus Religiosa

13. Kuth - Saussurea lappa

14. Tejpata - Cinnamomum tamala

15. Amaltas - Cassia Fistula

16. Aamla - Emblica officianalis

17. Bhang - Cannibas sativa

Romans Gods and Planets

1. Mercury - Messanger of the God

2. Venus - The God of Love and Beauty

3. Mars - The God of War

4. Jupiter - King of Gods

5. Saturn - - Father of Jupitar and God of Agriculture

6. Uranus - God of Sky

7. Nepture - God of Sea.


The Annual Session of the INC
Sr. No. ---------Year -----------Place------------ President----------------- Others

1. ----28-12-1885-------- Bombay----------- W.C.Bannerjee

2. 28-12-1886---------- Calcutta------------- Dadabhai Naroji

3. 28-12-1887 ------------Madras ---------Badruddin Tayyabji-------- First Muslim Pr. of INC

4. 26-12-1888 ------------Allahabad------- George Yule ---------First English President of INC

5. 27-12-1905------------ Varanasi ----------Gopal Krishan Gokhale ---------Call for Swedeshi

6. 26-12-1906 ------------Calcutta------------ Dadabhai Naroji --------Goal of INC ‘Self Govt.’

7. 26-12-1907 ------------Surat---------------- Rashbehari Ghosh ------------Congress Split

8. 1916 -----------------Lucknow --------------Ambika Charan Muzumdar

9. 1917 -------------Calcutta ---------------Annie Besant -------------First woman President

10. 1920 -----------Calcutta --------------Lala Lajpat Rai (suspended)

11. 1920 -------------Nagpur ------------C. Vijayraghavachariar (annual)

12. 1921 ----------------Ahmedabad ----------C.R.Das (in Prison) Hakim Ajmal Khan (acting)

13. 1924 ------------Belgaum --------------Mahatma Gandhi

14. 1925 ----------- Kanpur --------Sarojini Naidu ---------1st Indian Woman President of INC

15. 1928 ----------Calcutta -------Motilal Nehru

16. 1929-30 ---------Lahore -------Jawaharlal Nehru ----Resolution on Complete Independence on 31 Dec- 1929

17. 1931 ----------Karachi ----------Vallabhbhai Patel ---------Resolution on Fundamental Rights

18. 1937 -------Faizpur --------J.L.Nehru ------------INC first session in village

19. 1938 ----------Haripura ---------S.C.Bose --------

20. 1939 ---------- Tripuri ---------S.C.Bose (later Rajendra Prasad) ---

21. 1940----------- Ramgarh------------ Mulana Abul Kalam Azad

22. 1946 ---------Meerut --------------J.B. Kriplani

Friday, June 11, 2010

P.S.C. Questions

Selected Questions from Different Public Service Commissions

1.National Mela was founded by N.G.Mitra.

2.National Biodiversity Act of India came into existence in 2002

3.Terrorist attacked Indian Parliament on December 13, 2001.

4.‘The Philosophers must be the king’ – Plato.

5.Mandal Commission Report was implemented in 1990.

6.The Supreme court of India was set up by the Regulating Act, 1773.

7.Indian Telephone industries Ltd. is located at Banglore.

8.‘Patriotism is religion and religion is love for India” – Swami Vivekananda.

9.J.L.Nehru prepared the draft of the ‘Quit India’ resolution.

10. First Indian to start an agitation on political reforms – B.G.Tilak.

11. The women’s movement in India started largely under inspiration of Padmabai Ranaday.

12. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was prisoned in the Banikpur jail in 1942.

13. ‘Village on wheels’ project was started by Indian Railway in 2004.

14. Salim Group was permitted to set up SEZ at Nandi gram.

15. The mobile court in India is the brain child of Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam.

16. After the amendment in Indian Constitution by the Parliament on August 14, 2007, the number of castes in the list of Scheduled Castes is 1206.

17. Liver is affected by the consumption of Aflatoxin food adulterant.

18. Et-mad-Ud-Daula’s tomb at Agra was built by Noorjahan.

19. Radha Mohan Cup is associated with Polo.

20. Naval Air Station ‘Garud’ is situated at Kochin.

21. First Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya at Varanashi was founded by Jonathan Duncan.

22. The Samadhi of Raja Rammohan Roy is in Bristal, England.

23. The minimum distance between Sun and Earth occurs on January 3.

24. J.L.Nehru had written his famous book ‘Discovery of India’ in Ahmadnagar Fort prison.

25. Lord Mayo was the person in India who conducted Census of Population for the first time.

26. Bagalihar hydroelectric power project in J & K is located on Chenab river.

27. Canada is credited with the establishment of ‘Uranium City’.

28. The symbol of World Wildlife Fund is – red panda.

29. Sea water can be converted into pure water by reverse osmosis.

30. Indian PM Manmohan Singh is an elected member of Rajya Sabha from Assam.

31. ‘Andha-yug’ was written by Dharam Veer Bharti.

32. Pearl is mainly constituted of calcium carbonate.

33. Minamata disease is caused by Mercury.

34. World famous ‘Finger lake region’ is located in USA.

35. First fully computer literate district in India is Malappuram.

Making of constitution - 7

Supreme Court

1. Art. 124: - Supreme Court consists of Chief Justice and not more than 30 other judges.

2. Appointment:- He has been a High Court Judge for at least 5 years or has been an advocate of a High Court for at least 10 years.

3. No minimum age is prescribed for appointment as a judge of Supreme Court. Judges hold offices until he attains the age of 65 years.

4. The only grounds upon which he may be removed are: ‘proved misbehavior’ & incapacity.

5. Art. 126: - When the office of Chief Justice is vacant or he is unable to discharge his duties, the duties of the Chief Justice shall be performed by such one of the Judges of the Supreme Court as President may appoint for the purpose. (Acting Chief Justice).

6. Art. 127:- Appointment of adhoc Judges.

7. Art. 129: - The SC is a court of records and in this capacity it enjoys the power to punish for its contempt.

8. Art. 131: - Original jurisdiction- Certain types of cases such as dispute between the centre and states and dispute between two or more states.

9. Art. 132:- Appellate Jurisdiction- The Supreme Court is the highest court of appeal in the country.

10. Art. 143: - Advisory Jurisdiction: - The President may ask the Supreme Court to render advice on any legal or other matter whenever he thinks it necessary. Though such advice is not binding on the President; it is respected by lower courts as precedent.

11. Art. 137: - Review of judgments or order by Supreme Courts.

12. Art. 139: - Powers to issue certain writs.

13. Art. 141: Law declared by Supreme court tobe binding on all courts.

14. Present Chief Justice of India: - Just. S. H. Kapadia has been appointed as Chief Justice of India.

15. The Supreme Court held its inaugural sitting on 28 January, 1950 in the Chamber of Princes.

16. Present Supreme Court building was designed by Ganesh Bhikaji Deolalikar. The court moved to present building in 1958.

17. At the time of constitution of Supreme court total number of judges were 1+7= 8 in 1950.

18. The first woman to be appointed to the Supreme Court was – Justice Fatima Beevi in 1987. She was followed by Sujata Manohar, Ruma Pal and Gyan Sudha Mishra.

19. D.P. Wadhwa Committee constituted by Supreme Court to monitor its orders in the PIL on the Right to Food.

20. Indian Judiciary cover PIL – Epistolary jurisdiction.

High Court

1. Art. 214:- Provision of High Court for each State.

2. Art. 215: - High courts to be court of Records.

3. Art 217: - Appointment & conditions of the office of a judge of High court.

4. Art 224: - Appointment of retired judges at sitting of high court.

5. Art 226: - Powers to issue certain writs.

6. Art 231:- Establishment of a common High Court for two or more states.

7. Qualification for appointment as High Court Judge : held for at least 10 years a judicial office / been for at least 10 years an advocate of a High Court.

8. Art 202: - Expenditure in respect of the salaries and allowancesof the judges shall be charged on consolidated fund of the state.

Sunday, May 23, 2010

History -3

1. Mughals were the descendants of Mongols of Mongolia in Central Asia. They had developed the use of artillery in war for the first time.

2. Zahir-ud-din Babar was born in 1483 AD became the king of Farghana at the age of eleven.On the invitation of Daulat Khan Lodhi he came to Panjab. In 1526, the first battle of Panipat was fought between Ibrahim Lodhi & Babar. He established the Mughal Dynasty. He died in 1530AD.Tuzuk-I-Babri is autobiography of Babar.

3. Battle of Kanwah was fought between Babar & Rana Sanga.

4. Battle of Chanderi was fought between Babar & Medni Rao.

5. Humayun succeeded to throne in 1530A.D. At Amarkot a son named Jalal-ud-din.

6. Akbar was born to Humayun wife’s , Hamida Banu.

7. Shershah Suri defeat Humayun two times, one at Chausa in 1539AD. & another time at Kannauj in 1540AD. Shershah built G.T. Road from Calcutta to Peshawar.

8. Vasco da Gama of Portugal reach India in 1498

9. The original inhabitants of America are called Red Indians.

10. Akbar was crowned at the age of 13th year. Bairam Khan, the tutor & guardian of the Prince, became Akbar’s Reagent.

11. In the 2nd Battle of Panipat, 1556A.D. Akbar defeat Hemu.

12. In 1562A.D., Jodha Bai the princess of Ajmer married to Akbar.

13. Battle of Haldighati near Gounda was fought between Akbar & Rana Pratap. Rana Partap was defeated & he escaped, mounted on his beloved hourse Chetak..

14. He built Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri to commemorate his conquest of Gujrat.

15. Akbar attack Ahmadnagar , kingdom was bravely defended by Chand Bibi. Akbar’s friend & poet died in 1595A.D.

16. Salim elder son of Akbar killed Abul Fazal in 1602A.D.

17. Akbar died on 17th October, 1605 at the age of 63. He was buried near Agra in a tomb at Sikandra.

18. Akbar introduced the Manasbari System. Every officer was called a Mansadar. The Wazir (the head of revenue) & the Mir Bakshi ( pay master of army) were the two most important officials.Mir Saman looked after the royal household. The Qazi acted as a Chief Judge. The Sardar-I- Sardar kept a record of the charitable grants given by the emperor. The emperor used to hold meeting with his senior officers in the Dewan-I-khas. The kotwal was incharge of the town administration. Akbar introduced a system of Dashala.

19. Raja Todar Mal was incharge of the revenue & land assessment.

20. Akbar issued a gold coin called Mohur.

21. Abul Fazal wrote Akbar Nama (account of Akbar’s life) ,Ain-I-Akbari , deals with the law & revenue system.

22. Faizi was a poet & wrote in Persian. Akbar got the Ramayana & the Magabharata translated from Sanskrit to Persian.

23. Keshav, Rahim, Surdas, Tulsidas (Ramcharitmanas )were the great Hindi poet of this period.

24. Tansen ,the famous musician & singer, was another gem of Akbar’s court. He sang many Hindustani Ragas, of which Raj Darbari & Deepak Rag are very famous.

25. Akbar built a new capital city at Fatehpur Sikri, near Agra. He built several buildings such as Diwan-I-Khas, the Panch Mahal & Jodha Bai’s palace. He also built Humayun’s tomb at Delhi & Govinda Dev Temple at Vrindavan.

26. In 1575A.D. Akbar built Ibadat Khana at Fateh Sikri.

27. In 1582A.D. Akbar introduced new religion Din-I-ilahi.

28. Akbar’s nine gems: also called Nav-Ratnas. Abul Fazal, Faizi, Rahim, Todar Mal, BirBal, Tansen, Raja Man Singh, Faqir Azio Din & Mullan Do Piaza.

29. Persian books were written in Nastaliq script.

30. Akbar died in 1605A.D. after ruling India for 50 years.

31. Akbare empire was divided into 15 Provinces.

32. Slim Akbar’s eldest son took the title of ‘Nur-ud-din Jahangir’ or the ‘conqueror of the world’.

33. Tuzuk –I-Jahangiri are memoirs of Jahangiri.

34. Guru Arjun Dev ( who built the famous Golden temple at Amritsar & compiled Adi Granth, the holy book of Sikhs) was tortured to death by Jahangir in 1606.

35. Khurram became successful in capturing Kangra in 1622.

36. Jahangir married Nurjahan in 1611, original name was Mehr-ul-Nisa & was a widow. Nurjahan ruled Jahangir’s empire during the last 16 years of his reign.

37. William Hawkins of England visited India in 1608.

38. In 1615 Sir Thomas Roe came to India as ambassador of the English King, James 1& succeeded in getting the trade concession from the Mughal King. He got the permission to set up a factory at Surat.

History, Muslim invasion onwards

1. Muhammad Bin Qasim invaded Sind & Multan in 712 A.D.

2. Mahmud (rular of Ghazni) was the first Turk invader .He attacked India 17 times during the course of 25 years (1001-25 A.D.). Mahmud attacked Nagarkot in 1009AD. He attack Somnath temple in Kathiawar in 1025 A.D.. Many scholars lived at his court such as Firdausi , the author of Shahnama , a biography of Mahmud. Al Beruni was also a great scholar of his times.

3. Muhammad Ghori:- defeat Prithviraj Chauhan in the second battle of Tarain. He appointed Qutab-ud- din Aibak as his governor. In the first battle Prithiviraj defeated Muhammad Ghori in 1191 A.D.

4. The period from 1206-1526 A.D. is known as the Sultanate Period.

5. Early rulars are called the Mameluks or Slaves. So the whole dynasty is called the Slave dynasty.

6. The first Slave rular of Slave dynasty was Qutab-ud-din Aibak.(slave of Muhammad Ghori). He built two mosques – one at Delhi, called Quwat-ul-Islam, & the other at Ajmer called Dhai Din ka Jhompra. He also started construction of Qutab Minar, later completed by Illtutnish in 1210A.D.

7. Iltutmish was 2nd slave rular.(1210-1236A.D.)

8. Razia Sultan (1236-40A.D.) daughter of Iltutmish was 3rd rular of slave dynasty.

9. The group of nobles called “The Forty” raised Nasir –ud-din Mahmud to throne.(1246-1266)

10. Ghiyas-ud-din Balban (1266-86AD) - to face the foreign dangers, he adopted the policy of Blood & Iron .He was the greatest of the slave kings.In 1290 AD slave dynasty came to an end.

11. Jalal-ud-din Khilji (1290-1296) was the founder of Khilji Dynasty.

12. Ala-ud-din Khilji (1296-1316) . He formed a standing & strong army. He fixed the prices of all the comodities.Amir Khusro was a renowned poet of his court. He built Alai Darwaza near Qutab Minar.He built up as vast empire as that of Ashoka. Religion didn’t interfere in his administration. He attacked Chittor, captured its rular Rana Ratan Singh,and wanted Rani Padmini to join his harem.

13. Ghias –ud-din Tughlaq(1320-25) was the founder of Tughlaq dynasty.

14. Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq (1325-1351): He was a scholar of mathematics, philosophy, astronomy .He transferred his capital from Delhi to Devgiri. He introduced Copper coins, which were equal to silver Takka.

15. Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351-88) levied only four taxes i.e. Kharaj, Zakat, Jazia & Kham. He got 120 gardens planted in Delhi. He was first to impose Jazia on Non-muslims.

16. Amir Taimur (1398) invaded India.

17. Sayyid Dynasty was founded by Khizar Khan in 1414AD.

18. Bahlol Lodhi laid the foundation of Lodhi Dynasty.

19. Sikandar Lodhi made Agra as his Capital.

20. Ibrahim Lodhi. He was the last rular of Delhi Sultanate.

21. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in 1526 AD in the first battle of Panipat.

22. Sultan advisory body was known as Majlis-e-Khalawat. Advised by the Chief Qazi. The officials maintained all the records & collected revenue. The Bakshi was the pay- master of the army. The Qazi was the chief judge. The whole empire was divided into a large number of provinces. The provinces were divided into Shiqs & Shiqs divided into Parganas or group of villages. Muquaddam was the head of village administration.

Sunday, May 9, 2010

Making of constitution-10 States

PART – VI : The States & Special Provision relating to Certain Classes

1.Art152: - Definitions of State: In this part, the expression ‘State’ does not include the State of J & K which has been given special status under Art. 370.

2.Art 153: - Governors of States: There shall be a Governor for each state but the same person may be appointed as Governor of two or more States.

3.Art 154: - Executive power of State

4.Art. 155: - Appointment of Governor

5.Art 157: - Qualification for the appointment as Governor; a person shall be eligible to become a Governor of a State only if he is a citizen of India and has completed the age of 35 years.

6.Art 159: - Each person appointed as Governor shall, before entering upon his office; take before the Chief Justice of High Court an oath to the effect that he shall perform his duties faithfully and protect the constitution.

7.Art 161: - Power of Governor to grant pardons. The Governor does not have power to pardon a person convicted of a sentence of death. This power is exercised only by the President.

8.Art 163: - Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor.

9.Art 165: - Advocate General

10. Art 167: - Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor etc.

11. Art 169: - Abolition or creation of Legislative Council in States.

12. Art 170: Composition of Legislative Assemblies. There shall be not more than 500 and not less than 60 members in a legislative assembly. Exception Sikkim – 32, Goa – 40, Mizoram – 40 Arunachal Pradesh- 40 Pondichery -30.

13. Art 171: Composition of Legislative councils.

14. Art 172: - Duration of State Legislature, - 5 years from the date of its first meeting after election. However, the term of Assembly may be extended by Parliament by law for a period of one year at a time during operation of National Emergency and not more than 6 months, in any case, after the proclamation of Emergency has ceased to operate.

15. Art 175: - Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses.

16. Art 176: - Special address by the Governor.

17. Art 178: - The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative assembly.

18. Art 213: -Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances during recess to Legislature. If the Legislature of the State is not in session and the governor feels the urgency of a law, he may issue ordinances having the force of al aw enacted by the legislature. However, the said ordinance shall cease to be effective after the expiry of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature unless approved by the Legislature within the prescribed period of six weeks from the first day of the beginning of the session.

19. Art 214: - High courts for States.

20. The Legislative Council in Andhra Pradesh has been abolished in 1985. and that of Tamil Nadu has been abolished in 1986.

21. Legislative Council exists in Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, U.P. and J& K.

22. Art 231: - Establishment of a common High Court for two or more states.

23. Art 330: Seats shall be reserved in the House of People for the SC/ST in proportion to their population.

24. Art 331: The President may nominate two members of the Anglo-Indian Community to the House of the People, if he is of the opinion that this community is not adequately represented in the House of People.

25. Art 332: Seats shall be reserved in the legislative assembly for the SC/ST in proportion to their population.

Wednesday, May 5, 2010

Important Quotations - Britain

1. British Parliament can do everything but cannot make a man a woman and a woman a man – Dr. Lome.

2. “Conventions are obeyed because of political difficulties which follows if they are not” – Dr. Jennings.

3. “ Conventions clothes the dry bones of law with flesh and make the legal constitution work and keep it abreast of changing social needs and political ideas” – Ogg and Zink.

4. “Cabinet is the most important piece of mechanism in the structure of the British Government” – Munro.

5. “ PM is the shining moon among the lesser stars” – William Vernon Hercourt.

6. “PM is the key stone of the cabinet arch” – Sir John Marley.

7. “The British PM knows the leader of the opposition better than he does his own wife” – George Bernard Shaw.

8. ‘Cabinet is the keystone of the political arch” – Ramsay Muir

9. “The Cabinet is the steering wheel of the ship of the State” – Ramsay Muir.

10. “The Cabinet is a hyphen that joins, the buckle that binds the executive and legislative department together “ – Begehot.

11. “ The British constitution is a child of wisdom and of chance” – Munro

12. “The English constitution is a living organism. It is always growing with a view to meeting the necessities of the people. It is not a pudding made out of recipe” – Ogg.

13. “Conventions are unwritten maxims of the constitution” – J.S.Mill.

14. “Conventions are customs of the constitution” – Mr. Anson.

15. “Conventions do not exist for their own sake; they exist because there are good reasons for them” – Prof. Jennings.

16. “The Government of U.K. is in ultimate theory an absolute monarchy, in form a constitutional limited monarchy and in actual character a Democratic Republic” – Ogg

17. “The opposition is an integral and indispensable part of our working constitution” – Quinton Hogg.

18. ‘King can do no wrong” – Gladstone H.A.S. 2007

19. “The British cabinet is a wheel within Wheels” – Ramsay.

20. “The leader of opposition is the alternative PM” – Jennings.

21. “Cabinet is the child of Parliament but it leads the mother” – H.J. Laski.

22. “Second Reading is the time when the battle between friends and foes really begins” – Ogg & Zink.

23. ‘Parliament can do everything that is not naturally impossible” - Blackstone

Monday, May 3, 2010

Making of constitution-8 Vice President and Union Govt

1. Art. 63:- There shall be a Vice-President of India.

2. Art.64:- The Vice-President to be ex-Officio Chairman of the Council of States (Rajya Sabha).

3. Art 65:- The Vice Pr. Shall discharge the function of President during the temporary absence of the President, illness or any other cause by reason of which he is unable to discharge his functions. In 1969 when on the death of Dr. Zakir Hussain, the Vice Pr. V. V. Giri resigned, the Chief Justice Sh. Hidyatullah discharged the function of President.

4. Art.66:- The Vice-President is elected by an Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament.

5. Art 67:- Term and qualification of office of President: The term of office is five years. A formal impeachment is not required for his removal. He may be removed by a resolution of the Council of States passed by a majority of its members and agreed to by the House of Peoples.

6. Art 74: - There shall be a Council of Minsters with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President who shall, in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice.

7. Art 75:- President of India was not a real executive, but a constitutional head, who was bound to act according to the advice of Ministers, so long as they commanded the confidence of the majority in the house of the People.

8. Art 75(3): - The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the House of the People.

9. Art 75(2): - The ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the President.

10. Cabinet of American President is responsible to himself and not to Congress.

11. Art 76: - Attorney General for India. In England he is a member of Cabinet.

12. Art 78:- Duties of PM as respects the furnishing of information to the President.

13. Art 79:- Constitution of Parliament.

14. Art 80:- Composition of Council of State: - in the council of states, 12 members are to be nominated by the President from persons having special knowledge or practical experience of literature, science, art and Social Service.

15. Art 81:- Composition of House of Peoples. Not more than 530 representatives of the States and Not more than 20 representatives of Union Territories and Not more than 2 members of Anglo-Indian community, nominated by the President , if he is of opinion that the Anglo Indian community is not adequately represented in the House of the People.

16. The first Lok Sabha held its first sitting on 13-5-1952 .

17. The Rajya Sabha was first constituted on 03-04-1952 and it held its first sitting on 13-05-1952.

18. By 42nd Amendment Act 1976, the Indira Govt. extended the term of Lok Sabha to 6years but it has been reduced to 5 years by the 44th Amendment Act 1978.

19. Art 84: - Qualification for the membership of the Parliament.

20. Art 85:- Like English Crown our President shall have the power to summon or prorogue the Houses of Parliament and to dissolve the lower House.

21. Art 86: - Right of President to address and send message to houses.

22. Art 87:- The President shall address both houses of Parliament assembled together, at the first session after each general election to the House of the People and at the commencement of the first session of each year, and ‘inform Parliament of the causes of its summons’.

23. Art 89:- The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States.

24. Art 93:- The speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the Peoples.

25. Warrant of Precedence:- The President, The Vice President, The Prime Minister, Governor of States within their respective provinces, Former President, Deputy PM, Chief Justice of India , Speaker of Lok Sabha, Union Cabinet Minister, Union Minister of State, Union deputy Ministers.

26. The chairman and the Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha do not take oath of their respective offices, they only take oath as members of their respective Houses.

27. Art. 101:- If a member of either House of Parliament is absent from meeting of the House without permission for more than 60 days, his seat shall become vacant.

28. Art 102:- Disqualification of Membership under Anti-defection Act 1985 as given in 10th Schedule.

29. Art 103: - All questions to disqualification of members shall be decided by the President in consultation with Election Commission and his decision shall be final.

30. Art 105:- Immunities and Privileges of Houses of Parliament and of members and committees. Attorney General shall have a right of audience in all Courts in the Territory of India.

31. Art 108:- President has the power to summon a joint sitting of both house of Parliament in case of a deadlock between them. The Joint sitting shall not be summoned for the consideration of Money Bills and Constitutional Amendment Bills.

32. Art 109: - A money Bill shall not be introduced in the Council of States and the same shall return the Bill within 14 days from the date of receipt of the Bill, with or without its recommendations. The House of the People has the right to either reject or accept the recommendations of the Council of States.

33. Art. 110: - Definition of Money Bills. If any questions arises whether the Bill is a Money Bill or not the decision of the Speaker of Lok Sabha shall be final.

34. Art 112: - Annual Financial Statement i.e. Budget

35. Art 113:- Appropriation Bills: An Appropriation bill refers to the formal sanction of Parliament to Govt. to make expenditure out of the Consolidated Fund of India.

36. Art 115:- Supplementary, additional or excess grants.

37. Art 116: - Votes on account, votes of credit an exceptional grant.

38. Art 118:- The speaker shall preside over the joint sitting of the two houses of Parliament.

39. Art 120:- Language used in Parliament.

40. Art 122:- Courts not to inquire into proceeding of Parliament.

41. Art 123: - Power of President to promulgate Ordinance during recess of parliament.

42. Art 148: - Comptroller and Auditor General of India. He is to be the guardian of the Public purse and it is his duty to see that not a farthing is spends out of the Consolidated Fund of India. The term of Office of the CAG shall be 6 years.

43. Art 151: - Audit reports. Of the CAG is laid before the Parliament and is examined by the Public Account Committee.

Saturday, April 17, 2010

Indian History 1857 onwars

1. In 1866, Dadabhai Naroji founded “East Indian Association” in London.

2. The “National Indian Association” was founded in 1867 by Mary Carpentar.

3. The “Indian Society” was established in 1873 by Anand Mohan Bose in London.

4. Justice Ranade & others organized the “Poona Sarvajanik Sabha” in 1870’s

5. “ Indian Association” was founded in 1876 by S.N.Bannerji & Anand Mohan Bose.

6. “Madras Mahajan Sabha” formed in 1876 by G. Subramaniya Iyer & P. Anand Chandi.

7. “Bombay Presidency Association” – formed in 1885 by K.T. Telang & Pherozshah Mehta.

8. The Indian Association summoned an ALL INDIA NATIONAL CONFERENCE in Dec. 1883.

9. Allan Octavian Hume founded “Indian National Congress” in 1885. On 28 Dec. 1885 first meet
of INC held in Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College at Bombay, presided by Womesh Chandra
Bannerjee.The meet was attended by 78 members.

10. According to Safety Valve Theory, the INC was created by British Viceroy ( Dufferin).

11. The second session of INC met at Calcutta in Dec. 1886 under the Presidentship of Dadabhai Naroji.

12. The economic issues raised by Congress were based on the Drain of Wealth Theory propounded by Dadabhai Naroji.

13. Lala Lajpat Rai advocated technical education & industrial self help.

14. Bal Gangadhar Tilak start organizing the Ganapati festival from 1894.

15. Partition of Bengal – 1905 – lord Curzon.

16. The Congress took up the Swadeshi cell at its Banaras Session in 1905, presided by G.K.Gokhale.

17. The Congress during its Culcutta session in 1906, declared that the goal of the INC was “Self Govt.” - Presided by Dadabhai Naroji.

18. All India Muslim League was set up in 1906.

19. Congress split in 1907 – Surat Session.

20. Kennedy was murdered on April 30,1908 by Khudiram Bose & Prafulla Chaki ( real target was magistrate Kingsford of Muzzafarpur)

21. In 1904, V.D. Savarkar organized the Abhinav Bharat.

22. Madan Lal Dhingra assassinated Curzon Wyllie in July, 1909.

23. “Indian House” in London, was started by Shyamji Krishnavarma in 1905.

24. Ghadar Movement founded by Sohan Singh Bhakra began in 1913 in San Francisco.

25. The Indian Council Act of 1909 formally introduced the principle of elections for the first time.

26. The annulment of Bengal partition , announced by George V at Delhi Darbar in Dec. 1911.

27. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad started newspaper Al Hilal in 1912.

28. Bombay was the only province where Muslims had taken to commerce & education quite easily.

29. INC meet in August 1918 at Bombay under the president ship of Hasan Imam to consider the proposals of Montague Chelmsford.

30. An all parties conference appointed a sub committee in 1928 – whose members are Ali Imam, T.B. Sapru, S.C. Bose headed by Motilal Nehru.

31. “The only hope for India is from the masses. The upper classes are physically & mentally dead”: - Swami Vivekanand.

32. Bhulabhai Desai – was the advocate at the famous INA trials.

33. 1883- full codification of Indian System of Law & Procedure.

34. Illbert Bill – gave Indian magistrate the right to try European in Criminal cases.

35. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was referred to as the “Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity”– by Sarojini Naidu.

36.. In Nov. 1945, three former INA officers were charged with waging a war against the King- emperor : - Col Shah Nawaz , Captain Sehgal & Lt. Dhillon.

37. The first national Congress deliberated upon – nine resolutions concerning various issues.

38. “The sleeping giant of Asia has woken up & no power on the Earth can stop him now” – Lenin for the textile workers who came out on the streets in protest against Tilak’s transportation in July 1908.

39. The Justice party was launched by : - T.N.Nair, R.T. Chetti, C.N.Mudaliar.

40. Satya Shodhak Movement: - Jotirao Phule

41. Satya Shodhak Smaj : - Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj.

42. Council entry was the chief programme of the Swaraj Party.

43. Swaraj Party took part in the election in 1923,26.

44. In 1923, Swaraj Party gained absolute majority in C.P. Council.

45. M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up separate electorate in favour of joint electorate ( with certain conditions) at the time of Simon Commission.

46. It led to the estrangement of M.A.Jinnah, who called it a ‘parting of the ways’ with the congress, went back to the separate electorate & formulated his famous 14- points – Reference here is to Nehru Report.

47. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay write Anandmath in 1882.

48. R.C. Dutt is remembered as the pioneer of economic nationalism.

49. Bhartendu Harishchandra wrote the play, “Andher Nagri Chaupata Raja” .

50. The left wing within the congress emerged under S.C.Bose & Nehru’s initiative in the post non- cooperation period.

51. The Moplah rebellion of 1921 broke out in Kerela.

52. J.B. Kripalani was the Congress Pr. when India became free.

53. In 1929, the British Govt. announce for the first time dominion status as the goal of British Policy in India.

54. The Quit India Campaign was launched by he National Congress after the failure of Cripps Mission.

55. The first attempt at introducing a representative & popular element in the governance of India was made through the Indian Council Act, 1909.

56. The formation of an Interim Govt. set up on September 2, 1946 was first envisaged by Cabinet Mission Plan.

57. Leaders with the movements they were connected:
(i) Chakra Bisoi : - Khonds of Ghumsar (ii) Sido & Kanhu: - Santhal Rebellion. (iii) Radhakrishna Danda Sena : - Savare rebellion (iv) Tomma Dora: - Koya rebellion (V) Shambunath Pal: - Pabna uprising. (vi) Birsa Munda: - Munda revolt in Bihar.

58. Travancore, Hyderabad, Junegarh & Kashmir refused to join the Indian Union till the last moment.

59. Kuki Revolt: - Tripura, Kuka revolt: - Punjab, Pabna peasant revolt: - Bengal

60. In 1890, the first woman graduate of the Calcutta University , addressed the Congress Session : - Kadambini Ganguly

61. In 1905 – G.K.Gokhale – raised the demand for Swarajya or self governance within British Empire, from Congress platform.

62.The Muhammedan Anglo- oriental Defence Association (1893) was started by T.Beck.

63. Moderate politics was criticized in 1893-94 in a series of article entitled “New lamp for old” written by – Aurobindo Ghosh.

64. “We will not achieve any success in our labours if we croak once a year like a frog”: - B.G.Tilak.

65. In 1889: - Congress adopt the principle that it would not take up any proposal which was considered harmful to the Muslims by a majority of the Muslim delegates in the Congress.

66. The Ahrar movement was moved by the ideas of self governance, disliked the loyalist politics of the Aligarh school & big nawabs & Zamindars & advocated participation in the militant nationalism movement.

67. Mulana Abul Kalam Azad was the most prominent scholars of Deoband school: - who held the view that there was no conflict between Muslims & Nationalism.

68. B.G. Tilak played an important role in bringing together the Muslim league & congress in 1916.

69. When Congress ministers resigned in 1939 ( in protest over their not having been consulted over the decision to enter World War II. The Congress Working Committee suggested that it would cooperate if there were a central Indian national government formed, and a commitment made to India's independence after the war ): 22nd Dec. 1939 – was celebrated by Jinnah as the “Day of Deliverance”. The Day of Deliverance was also celebrated by B.R. Ambedkar & E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker. However Abdul Kalam Azad criticized the celebration.

70. Subhash Chandra Bose resigned from the Presidentship of the congress in 1939.

71. The Viceroy to be assassinated in India: - Lord Mayo.

72. William Bentick: - abolition of Persian as the court language.

73. Charles Metcafe : - Signing of a treaty with Ranjit Singh.

74. Ellenborough : - Annexation of Sind.

75. Delhousie: - Establishment of P.W.D.

76. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) was founded in 1927 by Birla & Thakurdas.

77. Jatindranath Mukherjee led the revolutionary Yugandhar Party which tried to conserve its resources & build international contact so as to organize a real military conspiracy at an appropriate time.

78. On Oct. 1940, the Individual Satyagraha was inaugurated by Acharya Vinoda Bhave.

79. S.C.Bose was unhappy with the Congress resolution at Ramgarh in March 1940 because Gandhi agreed to give support to the British war effort & he did not give a call for an immediate struggle.

80. The rating of RIN (Royal Indian Navy) went on a strike on 18 Feb, 1946. The strikers raised the National Congress, the League’s & the Red flag.

81. Vallabhbhai Patel & M.A. Jinnah persuaded the ratings of RIN to surrender on 23rd Feb, 1946.

82. The Warlis Tribal peasants Agitation : - support was provided by Maharashtra Kisan Sabha.

83. Bakasht Peasant agitation : - support was provided by – Bihar Kisan Sabha.

84. Travancore Agitation: - support was provided by the Communist.

85. Tebhaga movement: - support was provided by The Bengal Provincial Kisan Sabha.

86. The most enduring as well as most militant of the agitations originating in the period of 1945-47 was the Telengana Movement.

87. Strafford Cripps was a member of the Labour Party .

88. The Cabinet Mission was sent to India to establish a national government & to workout a constitutional arrangement for the transfer of power.’

89. The Untouchable ‘Mahars” launched an autonomous movement from 1920’s under B.R.Ambedkar to be allowed to take the sacred thread.

90. Jyotiba Phuyle’s Satyashodhak Smaj in the late 19th century undertook : - Separate representation for untouchable.

91. The Indian Council Act, 1909 provided to be the most short lived of all the British Constitutional experiment in India.

92. In March 1908, Agha Khan was elected as the “Permanent President”of the Muslim league.

93. Gokhale’s Servants of Indian Society launched in June 1905 have one of the aim as Swadeshi & boycott.

94. Rashbehari Ghosh was the Pr. of the Congress at the time of Moderate – extremist split.

95. In 1912- Muslim League adopt self – governance as one of its objectives.

96.On the Direct Action Day (16 August 1946) also known as the Great Calcutta Killing, unprecedented bloodshed took place as a result of Hindu – Muslim riots in – Calcutta . M.A. Jinnah announced the day " for the purpose of winning the separate Muslim state. Chief Minister of Bengal at that time was Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy. H.A.S. Exam

97. On Feb.20, 1947 PM Attlee announced the British Government’s decision to withdraw from India latest by June 1948.

98. The “August Offer” of 1940 sought to conciliate the Congress by guaranteeing the setting up of a representative Indian body to form a new constitution.

99. The Congress took a stand over the Montford Reform at Delhi in 1918, which led to a break away by old moderate remants – Sapru, Jayakar, & Chinamani who formed the National Liberal

100. The first definitely communist Journal to be published in India was – Socialist.

101. The Governor –General of India who initiated the introduction of English in India was – Lord Bentick.

102. Quit India Movement was adopted by INC in Bombay.

103. King George V visited India during the viceroyality of Lord Harding.

104. Govt. of India Act, 1935 gave representation to Indians for the first time in the legislature.

105. The first Muslim president of the INC was Badrudin Taybji.

106. A public meeting was held on 13th April, 1919 in Jallianwala Bagh to protest against the arrest of popular leader.

107. PC Roy set up the famous Bengal Chemical Swadeshi Stores during the Swadeshi movement.

108. Linthgow was the Viceroy of India when Quit India Movement started in 1942.

109. One act of the government that gave the nationalist organization the final push to acquire an organization form was : - Illbert Bill.

110. “My own belief is that the Congress is tottering , & one of my great ambitions is to assist it to a peaceful death” : - Lord Curzon.

111. The second session of RTC broke down on the question of separate electorates for the minorities.

112. In Hyderabad, a movement based on Gandhian principles became very popular in the rural areas. It provided vital support to the local Congress Party during the struggle for integration of Hyderabad with the Indian Union in 1947. The leader of the movement : - Swami Ramanand Tirth.

113 . J. L. Nehru became the president of INC : - 3 times.

114. In the Allahabad district in 1929, at a time of the worldwide economic depression; a ‘no-tax’ campaign on behalf of peasants was led by : - M.N.Roy.

115. Bhagat Singh shot Police Commissioner Saunders dead because he had led the lathi charge against he peaceful procession in the course of which Lala Lajpat Rai was injured.

116. M.K.Gandhi gave Vallabh Bhai Patel the title of ‘Sardar’.

117. Sarojini Naidu was the heroine of the 1942 Quit India movement.

118. To counteract unfavourable articles on India in the British Press & to supply authentic information, a journal named : - India was started in 1890.

119. In 1901 – five districts & the tribal area were taken away from Punjab to create the North-West Frontier Province.

120. Lord Hardinge II was the Governor – General of India who proposed the change of capital from Calcutta to Delhi.

121. The Communist Party was legalized in the year – 1942.

122. J.L.Nehru was the president of the Congress when it declared “ poorna swaraj” as its objective.

123. Gopal Hari Deshmukh was known as ‘Lokhitwadi’.

124. The British government summoned the first RTC in London to discuss the Nehru report.

125. The Indian Civil Service was introduced during the time of Lord Cornwallis.

126. The Life Divine, The Synthesis of Yoga,
Essays on The Gita, The Secret of The Veda, Hymns to the Mystic Fire , The Upanishads, The Renaissance in India, War and Self-determination, The Human Cycle, The Ideal of Human Unity, and The Future Poetry are the works of Aurobindo Ghosh.

127. In Alipore Bomb Case Sri Aurobindo Ghosh was defended successfully by
his Chitranjan Das.

128. Sri Aurobindo's close spiritual collaborator, Mirra Richard , came to be known as The Mother simply because Sri Aurobindo started to call her by this name. On being asked by why he called her the Mother, Sri Aurobindo wrote an essay called The Mother in order to shed light on the person of Mirra.

129. "If you want to know India, study Vivekananda. In him everything is positive and nothing negative." - Romain Rolland.

Governor General and Viceroy

1. Lord Canning(1858-62)became the first Governor General & Viceroy under the Indian Councils Act of 1858

2. The Indian Penal Code & the Criminal Procedure Code drawn up by Macaulay were introduced in 1860-61. The Indian Civil Service Act was passed in 1861.Lord Canning introduced the Portfolio System in the Government of India.

]3. Charles Wood’s Education Despatch of 1854 implemented by the University Act(1857), leading to the establishment of Universities in Calcutta, Bombay & Madras.

4. Lord Elgin (1862-1863) died suddenly at Dharamsala in 1863.

5. Sir John Lawrence (jan1864-69): He was the first to move the entire govt. of India to Shimla during the summer months. In his tenure tenure there was war with Bhutan (1864)

6. Lord Mayo (Jan.1869-72) He was assassinated by a convict at Port Blair in the Andaman Islands.

7. Lord Northbrook ( May 1872-1876)

8. Lord Lytton ( 18876-80) He created the Statutory Civil Service. He held Imperial Darbar in 1877, which was to mark the assumption of the title of ‘Empress of India’ by Queen Victoria. He enacted the Vernacular Press Act which put curbs on seditious writing. His aggressive policy led to the 2nd Afgan War (1879-81).

9.Lord Ripon (1880-84) Illbert bill was introduced in February 1883. Hunter Commission on educational reforms set up in 1882, First session of the National Conference at Calcutta in 1883.

10.Lord Dufferin (1884-88) First session of Indian National Congress was convened in Bombay. Allahabad University was set up in 1887.

11. Lord Landsdowne (1888-94) In 1888 demarcated it frontier with Tibet, the border between north- east Bengal & Burma was settled. In Afghanistan, efforts to demarcate a boundary commenced in 1894, resulting in the establishment of Duran Line.

12. Lord Elgin(1894- 99) In Lord Elgin’s tenure, the convention delimiting the frontier between China & Burma was ratified .

13. Lord Curzon (1899-1905) Partiton of Bengal in 1905. Coronation Darbar at Delhi mark the accession of King Edward VII. J.N. TATA was given permission to set up an iron & steel plant. He establish an Agricultural Research Institute at Pusa.

14.Lord Minto (1905-10). Formation of the All- India Muslim League. In 1908 Khudiram Bose was executed.

15. Lord Hardinge ( 1910-16) Delhi Darbar held in 1911, when George V visited India. The Capital was shifted to Delhi in 1912. Home Rule Movement was born in 1916.In 1914 Forest Research Institute & College opened at Dehra Dun. In 1915 Gandhi arrived in INDIA. Gokhale died . Rass Behari bose escape to Japan. Annie Besant announced the formation of Home Rule League.

16.Lord Chelmsford (1916-21) announcement of ‘Dominion Home Rule’ as the goal for India’s constitutional progress. Muslim League & the Congress joined hands leading to the Lucknow pact in 1916.Montagu- Chelmsford Reforms of 1919. Rawlatt Act passed , Gandhi appealed to Indians to observe an all India hartal on 6 April, 1919 in protest against the ‘black law’. On 13 April Brigadier Dyer fired on a peaceful gathering at Jalliawala Bagh. R.N.Tagore renounced his knighthood as a mark of protest. Lord Chelmsford appointed the Hunter Committee to hold an enquiry into Punjab incidence.

17. Lord Reading ( 1921-26):- In 1922 Gandhi was arrested; Chauri Chaura incident ended the Non- cooperation movement; 1st January, 1923 saw the formation of Swarajist Party by C.R.Das, Motilal Nehru. In 1924 the Royal (Lee) Commission on Superior Services submitted its report. Vithalbhai Patel was elected first Indian Presiding Officer of the Central Legislative Assembly.

18. Lord Irwin ( 1926-31):- In 1927, The Swarajists declared their goal to be Purna Swaraj or complete Independence . On 3rd February, 1928 Simon Commission , “all White’ Commission, came to India. To suppress demonstration in Lahore police use force & in a lathicharge Lala Lajpat Rai was struck & injured . The Punjab Kesari as the great leader was known , died a few days later. 1929 Bhagat Singh dropped bombs into the Legislative Assembly . Jatin Das died in jail after 64- days fast. In 1929 the Lahore Congress session call for Poorna Swaraj under the Pr. J.L.Nehru , Congress Working Committee met on 2nd January 1930 & decided that 26th January should be observed as the day of Purna Swaraj. Lord Irwin announced Dominion Status as the political goat of British policy in India. In 1930 the Congress passed Civil Disobedience resolution . Gandhi began his salt Satyagraha with the Dandi March. He left Sabarmati Ashram on March 12,1930. He reached Dandi on 5th April 1930. Next day he violated the salt laws by picking up a lump of the salt . First Round Table Conference was inaugurated in London. In 1931 Gandhi Irwin pact was signed. Gandhi sailed for England to attend 2nd RTC.

19. Lord Willingdon ( 1931-36): - On16th August 1932 the British PM , MacDonald, announced the Communal Award, the award provided for separate Hindu, ‘Untouchable’ & Muslim electorates for the new federal legislatures treating Hindu & Harijans as two separate political entities. Poona Pact regarding SC representation was signed. Harijan Sewak Sabha was formed.3rd RTC was held. In 1935 Rahmat Ali published a leaflet on the formation of Pakistan.

20 . Lord Linlithgow: - (1937-43): Muslim League’s celebrate “Day of Deliverance” on 22nd Dec. 1939. Aug.9, 1942, congress passed “Quit India Resolution”, Cripps Mission.

21. Lord Wavell: (Oct. 1943- March 1947) : - Shimla Conference in June 1945, Cabinet Mission in 1946.

socio-religious movement in india

1. Atmiya Sabha:- founded in 1816 by the reformer, Rammohun Roy at Calcutta.

2. Brahmo Smaj:- It was conceived at Kolkata in 1830 by Dwarkanath Tagore and Ram Mohan Roy as reformation of the prevailing Brahmanism of the time (specifically Kulin practices) and began the Bengal Renaissance of the 19th century pioneering all religious, social and educational advance of the Hindu community in the 19th century.

3. Tattvabodhini Sabha: - On 6 October 1839 Debendranath Tagore, son of (Prince) Dwarkanath Tagore, established Tattvaranjini Sabha which was shortly thereafter renamed the Tattwabodhini (Truth-seekers) Sabha.

4. Arya Samaj:- founded by Swami Dayananda in 10th April 1875. The Satyarth Prakash (English title: The Light of Truth) is a 1875 book written by Swami Dayanand

5. Young Bengal Movement:- The Young Bengal movement founded in 1827, was a group of radical Bengali free thinkers emerging from Hindu College, Calcutta in the early 19th century. They were also known as Derozians, after their firebrand teacher at Hindu College, Henry Louis Vivian Derozio.

6. Prarthna Smaj:- It is founded by Sir Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar, a noted Sanskrit scholar, Dr. Atmaram Pandurang, Narayan Chandavarkar, and Justice Mahadev Govinda Ranade in 1867. It is a movement for religious and social reform in Maharashtra based on previous reform movements and traditions of Maharashtra. The direct predecessor of the Prarthana Samaj in Mumbai was the Paramahamsa Sabha, a secret society for the furtherance of liberal ideas formed in 1849 by Ram Balkrishna Jaykar and others in Mumbai.

7. Radha Swami Movement:- It was founded in 1861 at Agra by Tulsi Ram (Shiv Dayal Saheb).

8. Ved Samaj: - Formed along the lines of the Brahmo Samaj, the Veda Samaj of Madras was founded in 1864. The real force behind the Veda Samaj was K Sridharalu Naidu.

9. Shudhi Movement:- purification was started Arya Samaj, and its founder Swami Dayanand Saraswati and his followers like Swami Shraddhanand, who also worked on the Sangathan consolidation aspect of Hinduism, in North India, especially Punjab in early 1900s, though it gradually spread across India

10. RamKrishan Mission:- The Ramakrishna Mission is a philanthropic, volunteer organization founded by Sri Ramakrishna's chief disciple Swami Vivekananda on May 1, 1897. The Mission, which is headquartered at Belur Math near Kolkata, India, subscribes to the ancient Hindu philosophy of Vedanta. It is affiliated with the monastic organization Ramakrishna Math, with whom it shares members.

11. Theosophical Society:- The society was founded in United States by Madame Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott who later came to India and founded the headquarters at Adyar in Madras in 1886.

12. Satya Shodhak Samaj:- Satyashodhak Samaj is a religion established by Mahatma Jyotirao Phule on September 24, 1873. This was started as a group whose main aim was to liberate the social Shudra and Untouchables castes from exploitation and oppression

13. Ahamadiya Movement:- Ahmadiyya is a religious movement founded in 1889 originating with the life and teachings of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad

14. Aligarh Movement:- The most important reformer among the Muslims was Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan .he appealed to his people to return to the original Islamic principle of purity and simplicity. He declared that the Quran alone was the authoritative work for Islam and all other Islamic writing was secondary. He advocated English education for the regeneration of Muslims in India. He started building new schools and founded an association called the Scientific Society in 1864. His greatest achievement was the foundation of the Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875.It mainly provided for education in the humanities and sciences through English medium. He was opposed to the participation of Muslims of Muslims in the activities of Indian National Congress. He wanted more time for the Muslims to organize and consolidate their position through good relations with British rulers. Besides introducing modern education among the Muslims Sayyid Ahmad Khan advocated the removal of many social prejudices that kept the community backward.

15. Servants of India Society: - The Servants of India Society was formed in Pune, Maharashtra, on June 12, 1905 by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Thursday, April 15, 2010

Making of constitution - 5

Election Commission and Political Parties

1. The election commission of India was set up in January, 1950. Sukumar Sen became the first Chief Election Commissioner.

2. Art. 324 of the Indian constitution provides for an independent Election Commission for the ‘superintendence, direction and control of the electoral roll and the conduct of elections’ in India.

3. Art. 324 says that there is no upper limit on the number of election Commissioners.

4. The election Commission is not responsible for the conduct of local body elections.

5. In 1990, Dinesh Goswami Committee recommended that the Election Commission be a 3-membered body (Thus, Art. 324 was amended). Also at its constitution, Chief Justice and Leader of Opposition ought to be constituted.

6. The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from office before expiry of his term by the President on the basis of a resolution passed by the Parliament by a special majority on the grounds of proven misbehaviour or incapacity (same as that of judge of Supreme Court). The other Election Commissioner may be removed by the President on the recommendation of the CEC.

7. Till 1989, the Election Commission was single member. Just before the 1989 general election, two Election Commissioner were appointed, making the body multi-member.
8. Election commissioners are appointed for a 5 year term or continue till the age of 65 year, whichever is earlier. They are not eligible for re-appointment. Also they cannot hold any office of profit after their retirement.
9. Art. 326: - The election to the House of People and to the Legislative Assembly of every state shall be held on the basis of adult suffrage.
10. Art. 325: - No person shall be ineligible for inclusion in any electoral roll on the ground only of religion, race, caste, sex or any of them.
11. First parliamentary election held from October 1951 to February 1952. Congress won 364 of the 489 seats in the first Lok Sabha. The communist Party of India came next with 16 seats.
12. In 1959 Centre dismissed the E.M.S. Namboodiripad Communist government in Kerala under Article 356 of the Constitution and this was the first instance of the misuse of constitutional emergency powers.
13. CPI went through a major split in 1964 following the ideological rift between Soviet Union and China. The pro-Soviet faction remained as the CPI, while the opponents formed the CPI (M).
14. The Bharatiya Jana Sangh was formed on Oct. 21, 1951 with Shyama Prasad Mukherjee as its founder President. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee was opposed to India’s policy of autonomy to J & K.
15. B.J.P. was founded in 1980.
16. D.M.K. was formed in 1949 by C.N. Annadurai. D.M.K. split into D.M.K. & A.I.D.M.K. in 1972.
17. T.D.P. was formed in 1983 by N.T.Rama Rao.
18. Bhartiya Kranti Dal was formed in Aug . 1974 by Ch. Charan Singh.
19. Akali Dal was founded on 13th Dec. 1920.
20. Samajwadi Party was founded on Oct.4, 1992.
21. Swatantra Party was formed in August 1959 after Nagpur resolution, led by C. Rajagopalachari, K.M.Munshi, N.G. Ranga and Minoo Masani.
22. Janta Party was formed on 1st May, 1977.
23. Lok Dal was formed in September, 1979.
24. To be recognized as a National Party, a party needs to secure at least 6% of the valid votes polled in any four or more states in a general election to the Lok Sabha or State Assembly. In addition to it, it has to win at least 4 seats in the Lok Sabha from any state or States as well. Or a party can also secure the status of a national party if it secure atleast 2% seats in the Lok Sabha subject to the conditions that these members are elected from atleast three separate states.
25. In case a political party loses recognition as national or state party, it will not lose its allotted symbol with immediate effect. They will be given a period of 6 years to elevate their status and in that period, they are free to use their symbols in the elections.

Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Making of constitution -4

Part – V : The Union
Chapter – 1: The Executive

1. President: - Executive head of the State, First citizen of the Country.

2. Art. 52: - There shall be a president of India.

3. Art. 53: - The executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him. The Supreme Command of the Defence forces of the Union is also vested in the President (Art. 53 (2)).

4. Art. 54: - Election of President: - The electoral college shall consists of – the elected members of both Houses of Parliament; the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States; and the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of Union Territories of Delhi and Pondicherry (According to the 70th Amendment Act 1992, the expression ‘States” includes the National Capital Territory of Delhi and the UT of Pondichery).

5. Art. 55: - Manner of election of President. The election is held through the system of proportional representation by means of the single –transferable vote by secret ballot.

6. Art. 56: - The term of office of President is Fiver Years form the date on which he enters upon his office.

7. Art. 57: - This article says that there is no upper limit on the number of times a person can become President. However, in his speech in Parliament in 1961, PM Nehru observed that we should adopt a convention that no person shall be a President for more than two terms, and that no amendment of the constitution was necessary to enjoin this.

8. Art. 58: - deals with the qualification for President. i.e. He must be a citizen of India, completed 35 years in age, eligible to be a member of Lok Sabha, must not hold any Govt. post. Exceptions are: President and Vice President, Governor of any State and Minister of Union or States.

9. Art. 59: - Conditions of President’s Office: - Takes oath in presence of Chief Justice of India, or in his absence, senior most judge of Supreme Court.

10. Art. 60: - Oath or affirmation of President:-

11. Art. 61: - deals with the impeachment procedure of the President; impeachment procedure is a quasi- judicial procedure; can be impeached only on the ground of violation of constitution. The impeachment procedure can be initiated in either house of the Parliament. The Charge must come in the form of a proposal which must be signed by at least one fourth of the total membership of that House. Before the resolution could be passed, a 14 days notice must be given to the President. If, after the notice, the House passes the resolution by a majority of not less than 2/3rd membership of that House, the matter will be referred to the other House. If other House also passes the resolution by a majority of not less than 2/3rd membership of that House, the President stands impeached from his Office from the date on which the motion is passed.

12. Art. 62: - In case the office falls vacant due to death, resignation or removal, the Vice – President acts as President. If he is not available then Chief Justice, if not then senior most Judge of Supreme Court acts as the President. The election is to be held within 6 months of the vacancy.

13. Supreme Court inquires all disputes regarding President’s election.

14. In the history of President election, V.V. Giri is the only person who won the election of the President as an independent candidate in 1969.

15. In July 1977, Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy was elected unopposed as no one else filed nomination for the post of the President.

16. Only once in the history of India, Just. M. Hidayatullah Chief Justice of Supreme Court, discharged the duties of the President of India in 1969. He is the only person to perform the functions of the President two times in two different capacities, the first time in 1969 being the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and the second time being the Vice President of India in 1982.

17. President can nominated 12 members to Rajya Sabha and 2 members of Anglo-Indian community in Lok Sabha if they haven’t received adequate representation.

18. When a bill is sent to the President after it has been passed by the Parliament, he can: (a) Give his assent to the Bill or (b) Withhold his assent to the Bill or (c) Return the Bill (if it is not a Money Bill or a Constitutional Amendment Bill) for reconsideration of the Parliament although only once.

19. President has the powers to veto w.r.t. Bills passed by the Parliament. He enjoys three types of veto powers: (a) Absolute Veto: - Withholding the assent to the Bill. Normally, it is exercised only in the case of private member’s Bill. (b) Suspense Veto: - It is exercised when instead of refusing his assent out rightly to a bill, the President returns the Bill or part of it for the reconsideration and the Parliament makes it obligatory on him to give his assent to it. In this case, the veto power is merely of suspensive nature. (c) Pocket veto: - Since the constitution does not provide any time limit within which the President is to declare his assent or refusal, the President could exercise this veto by not taking any action for an indefinite time; but if the ministry has a strong backing in Parliament, it would not be possible for him to do so. Pocket veto was used in 1986 by the then President Giani Zail Singh in the Postal Bill.

20. President can enact laws through ordinance when the Parliament is in recess (Art. 123). These ordinance must be passed by Parliament within 6 weeks of reassembly.

21. All money bills can originate in Parliament only on recommendation of President.

22. No demand for grant can be made except on his recommendation.

23. Emergency powers of President:
a). National Emergency (Art. 352) :- On the ground of security threats to India by war, external aggression or armed rebellion. The President can proclaim this emergency only after receiving a written recommendation from the Cabinet. The proclamation of emergency must be approved by the Parliament with in one month. If approved, it will continue for six months. It can be extended for an indefinite period with an approval of the Parliament for every six months. It has been proclaimed three times so far. 1962, 1971, 1975. President can suspend the operation of Fundamental Rights (except Art 20 & 21) during this type of emergency. Art. 19 can only be suspended in case of external agency and not in case of internal emergency. The Parliament can make laws on items mentioned in the State list during the period of National Emergency.
b). State Emergency (Art. 356): - Emergency due to failure of constitutional machinery in state. The President’s rule can be imposed when the President is satisfied, on the basis of either a report of the State Governor or otherwise, that the governance of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the constitution. The proclamation of the President’s Rule should be approved by the Parliament within two months. If approved, it remains in force for 6 months from the date of proclamation of the state emergency. It can be extended for a maximum period of three years with the approval of the Parliament every six months. The state Governor, on behalf of the President carries on the State administration with the help of the advisors appointed by the President or the Chief Secretary of the State. The president’s rule has been imposed more than 100 times.
c) Financial Emergency (Art. 360) : - The president can proclaim Financial Emergency if he is satisfied that the financial stability or the credit of India or any part there of is threatened. Such a proclamation must be approved by the Parliament within two months. During the Emergency, the President can issue directions for the reduction of salaries and allowances of all or any class of persons serving under the state. Financial emergency has not been declared so far.
24. Presidents of India
Name Tenure
From To
1. Dr. Rajendra Prasad 26-01-1950 13-05-1962
2. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan 13-05-1962 13-05-1967
3. Dr. Zakir Hussain 13-05-1967 03-05-1969
Acting: - V.V.Giri (Vice Pr.) 03-05-1969 20-07-1969
Acting: - Just. M. Hidayatullah (acting- CJI) 20-07-1969 24-08-1969
4.V. V. Giri 24-08-1969 24-08-1974
5. F. Ali Ahmed 24-08-1974 11-02-1977
Acting: -B.D.Jati 11-02-1977 25-07-1977
6. N. Sanjeeva Reddy 25-07-1977 25-07-1982
7. Gaini Jail Singh 25-07-1982 25-07-1987
8. R. Venkataraman 25-07-1987 25-07-1992
9. Dr. S. D. Sharma 25-07-1992 25-07-1997
10. K. R. Narayanan 25-07-1997 25-07-2002
11. Dr. A.P.J.Abdul Kalam 25-07-2002 25-07-2007
12. Pratibha Patil 25-07-2007 Till date
25. Dr. Zakir Hussain got the Bharat Ratna Award before becoming the President of India.
26. The name of the candidates for the office of President of India hasto be proposed by any 50 members of the electoral college.
27. The two ordinance which the President declined to promulagate for reasons of constitutional properiety on the eve of the election to the Eleventh Lok Sabha in 1996, related to - the curtailment of the election compaign period and the reservation of Jobs for Dalit Christians.
28. 42nd Amendment of the Constitution bound the President to accept the advise of the Council of Ministers.
29. President appoints State Governors, Ambassadors, Chief Justice and otherJudges of the Supreme Court and High courts, Attorney General, Chairman and other Members of UPSC, Finance commission (Art. 260)
30. President address is prepared by the PM and his cabinet.
31. V.V. Giri resigend from the Office of Vice President to contest for the office of President.
32. President can dissolve the Lok Sabha before the expiry of its normal term of 5 years on the recommendation of Prime Minister.
33. Art. 72: - President power to grand pardon
34. Illness cannot be the reason for removal of President of India.
35. Under Art. 143 President of India can seek advice from Supreme Court.
36. The President under Art. 331 may nominate two members of Anglo-Indian Community in Parliament, if that community is not adequately represented in the House of the People.

Tuesday, April 13, 2010

Making of constitution - 6

Schedule in Constitution
  1. First Schedule: - List of States and UTs.
  2. Second Schedule: - Salary of President, Governors, Chief Judges, Judges of High Court and Supreme Court, Comptroller and Auditor General.
  3. Third Schedule: - Forms of Oaths & affirmations.
  4. Fourth Schedule: - Allocate seats for each State of India in Rajya Sabha.
  5. Fifth Schedule: - Administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Tribes.
  6. Sixth Schedule: - Provisons for administration of Tribal area in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh.
  7. Seventh Schedule: - Gives allocation of powers and functions between Union and States contains three lists: Union List contains 97 subjects, States List contains 66 subjects and Concurrent List contains 47 subjects.
  8. Eighth Schedule: - List of 22 language of india recognized by constitution. Sindhi was added in 1967 by 21st Amendment. Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were added in 1992 by 71st amendment and Santhali, Maithali, Bodo and Dogri were added in 2003 by 92nd amendment.
  9. Ninth Schedule: - Added by 1st Amendment in 1951. Contains acts and orders related to land, railways and industries.
  10. Tenth Schedule: - Added by 52nd Amendment in 1985. Contains provision of disqualification on ground of defection.
  11. Eleventh Schedule: - Added by 73nd Amendment in 1992. Contains provisions of Panchyati Raj.
  12. Twelfth Schedule: - Added by 74th Amendment in 1992. Contains provision of Muncipal Corporation.

Monday, April 12, 2010

Making of Indian Constitution - 3

1. Directive Principle of State Policy form Part IV of the constitution contains articles from 36 to 51.

2. Art. 39: - equal justice and free legal aid.

3. Art. 40: - Organisation of village Panchyat.

4. Art. 41: - Right to education, work and to public assistance.

5. Art. 42: - THe state shall make effective provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.

6. Art. 43: - The shate shall secure to all workers a living wage, decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities. The state shall also promote cottage industries in rural areas on cooperative basis.

7. Art. 44: - Uniform civil code.

8. Art. 45: - Provision of free compulsory education for children of age group 5 - 14 years.

9. Art. 46: - safeguard of educational and economic interests of weaker sections specially SC and ST.

10. Art. 47: - Improvement of public health.

11. Art. 48: - Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry and protection of environment.

12. Art. 49: - Protection of monuments and places and objects of national interests.

13. Art. 50: - Separation of judiciary from executive.

14. Art. 51: - Promotion of international peace

15. Art. 51 (A): - 10 Fundamental Duties were added by 42 nd Amendment, 1976. The 11th duty i.e. to provide opportunities for education to his child or as the case may be , ward between the age of 6 - 14 years - was added by the Constitution 86th Amendment Act.

16. According to B.N.Rau Directive Principle of State Policy were intended as 'Moral percepts for the authorities of the state..... they ahve at least an educative value.

17. Granville Austin considers DPSP to be 'aimed at furthering the goals of the social revolution or ... to foster this revolution by establishing the conditions necessary for its achievement.'

18. Ivor Jennings characterised DPSP as 'Pious aspiration'

19. India borrowed the idea of the DPSP from constitution of Ireland.

20. In the DPSP, the concept of a welfare state find elaboration.

21. The DPSP are non - justiciable.

22. 'DPSP are like a cheque on a bank payable at the convenience of the bank' - K. T. Shah.

23. DPSP seek to make the constitution an instrument of social change.

24. The enforcement of DPSP depends upon the resources available witht the government.

25. B.R. Ambedkar wanted DPSP to be the basis of the all future legislation.

26. 42nd Amendments made additions to the DPSP with regard to - participation of workers in the management of industry, protection of the environment and free legal aid to the poor.

27. In State of TamilNadu Vs. L. Abu Kavur Bai case in 1984, the Supreme court held that although directive principles are not enforceable, yet the court shouldn't avoid them.

28. Art. 350(A): - It is the duty of the Ofiicers of Concerned states to provide primary education in mother tongure to the people of minorities particularly to the children of minorities class.

29. Art. 351: - It will be the duty of the Union to spread Hindi language amongst the people of India which will develop our cultural and social element.

30. Art. 355: It will be under consideration to appoint the people of SC & ST in and as Union or states.

Sunday, April 11, 2010

Persons, places and Misc info

1. Deep Joshi:- Prominent Indian Social activist came into news recently as he has been selected for the prestigious Ramon Magsaysay Award for 2009 for ‘development of rural communities.

2. Jharia: - The place in Jharkhand came into news recently as Government of India has cleared the one of the biggest rehabilitation plans in the world to relocate to safer areas those families whose houses face the threat of being sucked in by underground fires raging for the last 40 years or so.

3. Gangavaram port:- The port in Andhra Pradesh developed by the state government and D.V.S. Raju led consortium under the public private partnership mode is dedicated to the nation recently.

4. Unique identification authority: - It is an agency formed by the government of India to steer the ambitious scheme of creating a multipurpose unique identification database of all citizens in the country. Infosys co-founder Nadan Nilekani has been appointed as its chairman. Under this project a unique identification number will be assigned to each resident in the country that will be permanent. It is believed that terrorist who infiltrate into the country will find it impossible to acquire such cards. They can hence be easily identified. Each citizen will get a number which would entitle him to get his or her driving license, passport or PAN card. A citizen without the number would not be entitled for benefit from different government schemes.

5. Nalin Suri:- Secretary in Ministry of external affair came into news recently as He has been named as the next high commissioner to the UK.

6. Pullela Gopichand:- He is a former badminton star who has won the Arjun Award , the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award and the Padma Shree. He become the most decorated Indian sportstar in terms of National awards as he has recently been given Dronacharya Award.

7. Nova- G: - It is the name of World’s fastest and most powerful supercomputer which can rearrange its internal circuitry to suit the task at hand recently became operational at the Florida University.

8. Ebrahim Alkazi: - Veteran theater director came into news recently as he has been felicitated with ‘Hindiratna Samman – 2009.

9. Mitchell Johnson:- He is a cricketer from Australia. He came into news recently as he has been awarded as the ICC cricketer of the year award .

10. Oceansat – 2: - It was recently launched successfully by PSLV –C14 from the Sriharikota spaceport. It is India’s 16th remote sensing satellite and is intended for identification of potential fishing zones, sea state forecasting, coastal zone studies and providing inputs for weather forecasting and climatic studies.

11. 50 years of Doordarshan: - Doordarshan has completed 50 years of its journey on September 15, 2009. Although it started its working with just one small transmitter, it is today the largest broadcast network in the world with 31 channels, 66 studio, 1,413 transmitters and access to 128 million household. Though Doordarshan has assets and resources that are unmatched, it has failed to produce good and contemporary content as well as being commercially viable. It stills continue to survive on government grants.

12. India relation with Bangladesh: - India has cordial relation with Bangladesh. Recently both the country has signed an agreement on combating international terrorism, organized crime and drug trafficking. Bangladesh has agreed to provide access to the Ashuganj port to facilitate transportation of consignment for power in Tripura. India has agreed to Bangladesh to facilitate Nepal-Bangladesh and Bhutan Bangladesh connectivity.

13. Saakshar Bharat Mission:- The National Mission for Female Literacy, christened as Saakshar Bharat Mission was launched recently by PM on September 8, to mark International Literacy Day. The mission is a renewed effort to make 70million people – 60 million of them women – functionally literate by 2012 and plug the gender gap that has persisted despite the two decade old literacy drive in mission mode. The mission would fully involve the community in its implementation and utilize the potential of panchyati raj institutions and women’s self help groups.

14. Duranto Express: - It is the name of fastest train in the country recently started between Sealdah and Delhi.

15. Yukio Hatoyama: - He came into news recently as he has been elected as Japan’s PM following his party’s landslide victory in general elections.

16. Rajendra Shekhawat: - He is the son of President of India. He came into news recently as he has been elected to Maharashtra Legislative Assembly from Amravati constituency.

17. Ramesh Chandra Tripathi: - Wing commander came into news recently as he has made recently the highest parachute landing at the foot of Mt. Everest.

18. India Roads 2009- An international conference on road infrastructure named as India Road 2009: Better road better India – outlook, opportunity and way ahead’ was recently held in New Delhi.

19. Michael Jorden: - Considered as one of the greatest basketball player of all time came into news recently as he has been inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame.

20. Mao Xinyu:- He is the grandson of China’s legendary Mao Zedong. He came into news recently as he become the youngest Major General in the History of China’s People’s Liberation Army.

21. Harishchandrachi Factory: - It is the name of a Marathi Film, based on the making of the country’s first film. This film was chosen India’s official entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the Oscar Awards.

22. Ehud Olmert: - He is former PM of Israel. He came into news recently as he became the first PM in the country’s history to face criminal charges.

23. Daman Weaver: - He is an 11 year old Florida based reporter. He became the youngest to interview US President Barack Obama.

24. Jinnah: India, Partition, Independence: The book has been authored by Sh. Jaswant Singh. This book has crated furor in BJP and results in the expulsion of Shri Jaswant Singh from the party.

25. Berlin: - German city came into news recently in connection with World Health Summit.

26. Alang: - It is a ship breaking yard off the Bhavnagar coast in Gujrat. It was in thick controversy recently over the move to allow an allegedly contaminated ship Platinum-II to berth there.

27. Banstala: - It is a railway station near Jhargram town in West Bengal. It came into news recently as supporters of Maoist backed PSBJC detained the New Delhi bound Rajdhani Express from Bhubneshwar for five hours.

28. Oasis of Sea:- It the name of world’s largest cruise liner that began its maiden voyage to Florida recently from a shipyard in Finland.

29. Bret Lee:- He came into news recently as he was named Man of the Series in the recently concluded Champions League Twenty-20 Cricket Championship.

30. Geeta Vardan:- She has recently become the first woman in the history of the ISRO to become the Director of a national centre ADRIN in Hydrabad .

31. Lee Myung bak : - He is president of the Republic of Korea. He came into news recently as he was the Chief Guest of the Republic Day.