Saturday, April 17, 2010

Indian History 1857 onwars

1. In 1866, Dadabhai Naroji founded “East Indian Association” in London.

2. The “National Indian Association” was founded in 1867 by Mary Carpentar.

3. The “Indian Society” was established in 1873 by Anand Mohan Bose in London.

4. Justice Ranade & others organized the “Poona Sarvajanik Sabha” in 1870’s

5. “ Indian Association” was founded in 1876 by S.N.Bannerji & Anand Mohan Bose.

6. “Madras Mahajan Sabha” formed in 1876 by G. Subramaniya Iyer & P. Anand Chandi.

7. “Bombay Presidency Association” – formed in 1885 by K.T. Telang & Pherozshah Mehta.

8. The Indian Association summoned an ALL INDIA NATIONAL CONFERENCE in Dec. 1883.

9. Allan Octavian Hume founded “Indian National Congress” in 1885. On 28 Dec. 1885 first meet
of INC held in Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College at Bombay, presided by Womesh Chandra
Bannerjee.The meet was attended by 78 members.

10. According to Safety Valve Theory, the INC was created by British Viceroy ( Dufferin).

11. The second session of INC met at Calcutta in Dec. 1886 under the Presidentship of Dadabhai Naroji.

12. The economic issues raised by Congress were based on the Drain of Wealth Theory propounded by Dadabhai Naroji.

13. Lala Lajpat Rai advocated technical education & industrial self help.

14. Bal Gangadhar Tilak start organizing the Ganapati festival from 1894.

15. Partition of Bengal – 1905 – lord Curzon.

16. The Congress took up the Swadeshi cell at its Banaras Session in 1905, presided by G.K.Gokhale.

17. The Congress during its Culcutta session in 1906, declared that the goal of the INC was “Self Govt.” - Presided by Dadabhai Naroji.

18. All India Muslim League was set up in 1906.

19. Congress split in 1907 – Surat Session.

20. Kennedy was murdered on April 30,1908 by Khudiram Bose & Prafulla Chaki ( real target was magistrate Kingsford of Muzzafarpur)

21. In 1904, V.D. Savarkar organized the Abhinav Bharat.

22. Madan Lal Dhingra assassinated Curzon Wyllie in July, 1909.

23. “Indian House” in London, was started by Shyamji Krishnavarma in 1905.

24. Ghadar Movement founded by Sohan Singh Bhakra began in 1913 in San Francisco.

25. The Indian Council Act of 1909 formally introduced the principle of elections for the first time.

26. The annulment of Bengal partition , announced by George V at Delhi Darbar in Dec. 1911.

27. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad started newspaper Al Hilal in 1912.

28. Bombay was the only province where Muslims had taken to commerce & education quite easily.

29. INC meet in August 1918 at Bombay under the president ship of Hasan Imam to consider the proposals of Montague Chelmsford.

30. An all parties conference appointed a sub committee in 1928 – whose members are Ali Imam, T.B. Sapru, S.C. Bose headed by Motilal Nehru.

31. “The only hope for India is from the masses. The upper classes are physically & mentally dead”: - Swami Vivekanand.

32. Bhulabhai Desai – was the advocate at the famous INA trials.

33. 1883- full codification of Indian System of Law & Procedure.

34. Illbert Bill – gave Indian magistrate the right to try European in Criminal cases.

35. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was referred to as the “Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity”– by Sarojini Naidu.

36.. In Nov. 1945, three former INA officers were charged with waging a war against the King- emperor : - Col Shah Nawaz , Captain Sehgal & Lt. Dhillon.

37. The first national Congress deliberated upon – nine resolutions concerning various issues.

38. “The sleeping giant of Asia has woken up & no power on the Earth can stop him now” – Lenin for the textile workers who came out on the streets in protest against Tilak’s transportation in July 1908.

39. The Justice party was launched by : - T.N.Nair, R.T. Chetti, C.N.Mudaliar.

40. Satya Shodhak Movement: - Jotirao Phule

41. Satya Shodhak Smaj : - Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj.

42. Council entry was the chief programme of the Swaraj Party.

43. Swaraj Party took part in the election in 1923,26.

44. In 1923, Swaraj Party gained absolute majority in C.P. Council.

45. M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up separate electorate in favour of joint electorate ( with certain conditions) at the time of Simon Commission.

46. It led to the estrangement of M.A.Jinnah, who called it a ‘parting of the ways’ with the congress, went back to the separate electorate & formulated his famous 14- points – Reference here is to Nehru Report.

47. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay write Anandmath in 1882.

48. R.C. Dutt is remembered as the pioneer of economic nationalism.

49. Bhartendu Harishchandra wrote the play, “Andher Nagri Chaupata Raja” .

50. The left wing within the congress emerged under S.C.Bose & Nehru’s initiative in the post non- cooperation period.

51. The Moplah rebellion of 1921 broke out in Kerela.

52. J.B. Kripalani was the Congress Pr. when India became free.

53. In 1929, the British Govt. announce for the first time dominion status as the goal of British Policy in India.

54. The Quit India Campaign was launched by he National Congress after the failure of Cripps Mission.

55. The first attempt at introducing a representative & popular element in the governance of India was made through the Indian Council Act, 1909.

56. The formation of an Interim Govt. set up on September 2, 1946 was first envisaged by Cabinet Mission Plan.

57. Leaders with the movements they were connected:
(i) Chakra Bisoi : - Khonds of Ghumsar (ii) Sido & Kanhu: - Santhal Rebellion. (iii) Radhakrishna Danda Sena : - Savare rebellion (iv) Tomma Dora: - Koya rebellion (V) Shambunath Pal: - Pabna uprising. (vi) Birsa Munda: - Munda revolt in Bihar.

58. Travancore, Hyderabad, Junegarh & Kashmir refused to join the Indian Union till the last moment.

59. Kuki Revolt: - Tripura, Kuka revolt: - Punjab, Pabna peasant revolt: - Bengal

60. In 1890, the first woman graduate of the Calcutta University , addressed the Congress Session : - Kadambini Ganguly

61. In 1905 – G.K.Gokhale – raised the demand for Swarajya or self governance within British Empire, from Congress platform.

62.The Muhammedan Anglo- oriental Defence Association (1893) was started by T.Beck.

63. Moderate politics was criticized in 1893-94 in a series of article entitled “New lamp for old” written by – Aurobindo Ghosh.

64. “We will not achieve any success in our labours if we croak once a year like a frog”: - B.G.Tilak.

65. In 1889: - Congress adopt the principle that it would not take up any proposal which was considered harmful to the Muslims by a majority of the Muslim delegates in the Congress.

66. The Ahrar movement was moved by the ideas of self governance, disliked the loyalist politics of the Aligarh school & big nawabs & Zamindars & advocated participation in the militant nationalism movement.

67. Mulana Abul Kalam Azad was the most prominent scholars of Deoband school: - who held the view that there was no conflict between Muslims & Nationalism.

68. B.G. Tilak played an important role in bringing together the Muslim league & congress in 1916.

69. When Congress ministers resigned in 1939 ( in protest over their not having been consulted over the decision to enter World War II. The Congress Working Committee suggested that it would cooperate if there were a central Indian national government formed, and a commitment made to India's independence after the war ): 22nd Dec. 1939 – was celebrated by Jinnah as the “Day of Deliverance”. The Day of Deliverance was also celebrated by B.R. Ambedkar & E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker. However Abdul Kalam Azad criticized the celebration.

70. Subhash Chandra Bose resigned from the Presidentship of the congress in 1939.

71. The Viceroy to be assassinated in India: - Lord Mayo.

72. William Bentick: - abolition of Persian as the court language.

73. Charles Metcafe : - Signing of a treaty with Ranjit Singh.

74. Ellenborough : - Annexation of Sind.

75. Delhousie: - Establishment of P.W.D.

76. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) was founded in 1927 by Birla & Thakurdas.

77. Jatindranath Mukherjee led the revolutionary Yugandhar Party which tried to conserve its resources & build international contact so as to organize a real military conspiracy at an appropriate time.

78. On Oct. 1940, the Individual Satyagraha was inaugurated by Acharya Vinoda Bhave.

79. S.C.Bose was unhappy with the Congress resolution at Ramgarh in March 1940 because Gandhi agreed to give support to the British war effort & he did not give a call for an immediate struggle.

80. The rating of RIN (Royal Indian Navy) went on a strike on 18 Feb, 1946. The strikers raised the National Congress, the League’s & the Red flag.

81. Vallabhbhai Patel & M.A. Jinnah persuaded the ratings of RIN to surrender on 23rd Feb, 1946.

82. The Warlis Tribal peasants Agitation : - support was provided by Maharashtra Kisan Sabha.

83. Bakasht Peasant agitation : - support was provided by – Bihar Kisan Sabha.

84. Travancore Agitation: - support was provided by the Communist.

85. Tebhaga movement: - support was provided by The Bengal Provincial Kisan Sabha.

86. The most enduring as well as most militant of the agitations originating in the period of 1945-47 was the Telengana Movement.

87. Strafford Cripps was a member of the Labour Party .

88. The Cabinet Mission was sent to India to establish a national government & to workout a constitutional arrangement for the transfer of power.’

89. The Untouchable ‘Mahars” launched an autonomous movement from 1920’s under B.R.Ambedkar to be allowed to take the sacred thread.

90. Jyotiba Phuyle’s Satyashodhak Smaj in the late 19th century undertook : - Separate representation for untouchable.

91. The Indian Council Act, 1909 provided to be the most short lived of all the British Constitutional experiment in India.

92. In March 1908, Agha Khan was elected as the “Permanent President”of the Muslim league.

93. Gokhale’s Servants of Indian Society launched in June 1905 have one of the aim as Swadeshi & boycott.

94. Rashbehari Ghosh was the Pr. of the Congress at the time of Moderate – extremist split.

95. In 1912- Muslim League adopt self – governance as one of its objectives.

96.On the Direct Action Day (16 August 1946) also known as the Great Calcutta Killing, unprecedented bloodshed took place as a result of Hindu – Muslim riots in – Calcutta . M.A. Jinnah announced the day " for the purpose of winning the separate Muslim state. Chief Minister of Bengal at that time was Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy. H.A.S. Exam

97. On Feb.20, 1947 PM Attlee announced the British Government’s decision to withdraw from India latest by June 1948.

98. The “August Offer” of 1940 sought to conciliate the Congress by guaranteeing the setting up of a representative Indian body to form a new constitution.

99. The Congress took a stand over the Montford Reform at Delhi in 1918, which led to a break away by old moderate remants – Sapru, Jayakar, & Chinamani who formed the National Liberal

100. The first definitely communist Journal to be published in India was – Socialist.

101. The Governor –General of India who initiated the introduction of English in India was – Lord Bentick.

102. Quit India Movement was adopted by INC in Bombay.

103. King George V visited India during the viceroyality of Lord Harding.

104. Govt. of India Act, 1935 gave representation to Indians for the first time in the legislature.

105. The first Muslim president of the INC was Badrudin Taybji.

106. A public meeting was held on 13th April, 1919 in Jallianwala Bagh to protest against the arrest of popular leader.

107. PC Roy set up the famous Bengal Chemical Swadeshi Stores during the Swadeshi movement.

108. Linthgow was the Viceroy of India when Quit India Movement started in 1942.

109. One act of the government that gave the nationalist organization the final push to acquire an organization form was : - Illbert Bill.

110. “My own belief is that the Congress is tottering , & one of my great ambitions is to assist it to a peaceful death” : - Lord Curzon.

111. The second session of RTC broke down on the question of separate electorates for the minorities.

112. In Hyderabad, a movement based on Gandhian principles became very popular in the rural areas. It provided vital support to the local Congress Party during the struggle for integration of Hyderabad with the Indian Union in 1947. The leader of the movement : - Swami Ramanand Tirth.

113 . J. L. Nehru became the president of INC : - 3 times.

114. In the Allahabad district in 1929, at a time of the worldwide economic depression; a ‘no-tax’ campaign on behalf of peasants was led by : - M.N.Roy.

115. Bhagat Singh shot Police Commissioner Saunders dead because he had led the lathi charge against he peaceful procession in the course of which Lala Lajpat Rai was injured.

116. M.K.Gandhi gave Vallabh Bhai Patel the title of ‘Sardar’.

117. Sarojini Naidu was the heroine of the 1942 Quit India movement.

118. To counteract unfavourable articles on India in the British Press & to supply authentic information, a journal named : - India was started in 1890.

119. In 1901 – five districts & the tribal area were taken away from Punjab to create the North-West Frontier Province.

120. Lord Hardinge II was the Governor – General of India who proposed the change of capital from Calcutta to Delhi.

121. The Communist Party was legalized in the year – 1942.

122. J.L.Nehru was the president of the Congress when it declared “ poorna swaraj” as its objective.

123. Gopal Hari Deshmukh was known as ‘Lokhitwadi’.

124. The British government summoned the first RTC in London to discuss the Nehru report.

125. The Indian Civil Service was introduced during the time of Lord Cornwallis.

126. The Life Divine, The Synthesis of Yoga,
Essays on The Gita, The Secret of The Veda, Hymns to the Mystic Fire , The Upanishads, The Renaissance in India, War and Self-determination, The Human Cycle, The Ideal of Human Unity, and The Future Poetry are the works of Aurobindo Ghosh.

127. In Alipore Bomb Case Sri Aurobindo Ghosh was defended successfully by
his Chitranjan Das.

128. Sri Aurobindo's close spiritual collaborator, Mirra Richard , came to be known as The Mother simply because Sri Aurobindo started to call her by this name. On being asked by why he called her the Mother, Sri Aurobindo wrote an essay called The Mother in order to shed light on the person of Mirra.

129. "If you want to know India, study Vivekananda. In him everything is positive and nothing negative." - Romain Rolland.

Governor General and Viceroy

1. Lord Canning(1858-62)became the first Governor General & Viceroy under the Indian Councils Act of 1858

2. The Indian Penal Code & the Criminal Procedure Code drawn up by Macaulay were introduced in 1860-61. The Indian Civil Service Act was passed in 1861.Lord Canning introduced the Portfolio System in the Government of India.

]3. Charles Wood’s Education Despatch of 1854 implemented by the University Act(1857), leading to the establishment of Universities in Calcutta, Bombay & Madras.

4. Lord Elgin (1862-1863) died suddenly at Dharamsala in 1863.

5. Sir John Lawrence (jan1864-69): He was the first to move the entire govt. of India to Shimla during the summer months. In his tenure tenure there was war with Bhutan (1864)

6. Lord Mayo (Jan.1869-72) He was assassinated by a convict at Port Blair in the Andaman Islands.

7. Lord Northbrook ( May 1872-1876)

8. Lord Lytton ( 18876-80) He created the Statutory Civil Service. He held Imperial Darbar in 1877, which was to mark the assumption of the title of ‘Empress of India’ by Queen Victoria. He enacted the Vernacular Press Act which put curbs on seditious writing. His aggressive policy led to the 2nd Afgan War (1879-81).

9.Lord Ripon (1880-84) Illbert bill was introduced in February 1883. Hunter Commission on educational reforms set up in 1882, First session of the National Conference at Calcutta in 1883.

10.Lord Dufferin (1884-88) First session of Indian National Congress was convened in Bombay. Allahabad University was set up in 1887.

11. Lord Landsdowne (1888-94) In 1888 demarcated it frontier with Tibet, the border between north- east Bengal & Burma was settled. In Afghanistan, efforts to demarcate a boundary commenced in 1894, resulting in the establishment of Duran Line.

12. Lord Elgin(1894- 99) In Lord Elgin’s tenure, the convention delimiting the frontier between China & Burma was ratified .

13. Lord Curzon (1899-1905) Partiton of Bengal in 1905. Coronation Darbar at Delhi mark the accession of King Edward VII. J.N. TATA was given permission to set up an iron & steel plant. He establish an Agricultural Research Institute at Pusa.

14.Lord Minto (1905-10). Formation of the All- India Muslim League. In 1908 Khudiram Bose was executed.

15. Lord Hardinge ( 1910-16) Delhi Darbar held in 1911, when George V visited India. The Capital was shifted to Delhi in 1912. Home Rule Movement was born in 1916.In 1914 Forest Research Institute & College opened at Dehra Dun. In 1915 Gandhi arrived in INDIA. Gokhale died . Rass Behari bose escape to Japan. Annie Besant announced the formation of Home Rule League.

16.Lord Chelmsford (1916-21) announcement of ‘Dominion Home Rule’ as the goal for India’s constitutional progress. Muslim League & the Congress joined hands leading to the Lucknow pact in 1916.Montagu- Chelmsford Reforms of 1919. Rawlatt Act passed , Gandhi appealed to Indians to observe an all India hartal on 6 April, 1919 in protest against the ‘black law’. On 13 April Brigadier Dyer fired on a peaceful gathering at Jalliawala Bagh. R.N.Tagore renounced his knighthood as a mark of protest. Lord Chelmsford appointed the Hunter Committee to hold an enquiry into Punjab incidence.

17. Lord Reading ( 1921-26):- In 1922 Gandhi was arrested; Chauri Chaura incident ended the Non- cooperation movement; 1st January, 1923 saw the formation of Swarajist Party by C.R.Das, Motilal Nehru. In 1924 the Royal (Lee) Commission on Superior Services submitted its report. Vithalbhai Patel was elected first Indian Presiding Officer of the Central Legislative Assembly.

18. Lord Irwin ( 1926-31):- In 1927, The Swarajists declared their goal to be Purna Swaraj or complete Independence . On 3rd February, 1928 Simon Commission , “all White’ Commission, came to India. To suppress demonstration in Lahore police use force & in a lathicharge Lala Lajpat Rai was struck & injured . The Punjab Kesari as the great leader was known , died a few days later. 1929 Bhagat Singh dropped bombs into the Legislative Assembly . Jatin Das died in jail after 64- days fast. In 1929 the Lahore Congress session call for Poorna Swaraj under the Pr. J.L.Nehru , Congress Working Committee met on 2nd January 1930 & decided that 26th January should be observed as the day of Purna Swaraj. Lord Irwin announced Dominion Status as the political goat of British policy in India. In 1930 the Congress passed Civil Disobedience resolution . Gandhi began his salt Satyagraha with the Dandi March. He left Sabarmati Ashram on March 12,1930. He reached Dandi on 5th April 1930. Next day he violated the salt laws by picking up a lump of the salt . First Round Table Conference was inaugurated in London. In 1931 Gandhi Irwin pact was signed. Gandhi sailed for England to attend 2nd RTC.

19. Lord Willingdon ( 1931-36): - On16th August 1932 the British PM , MacDonald, announced the Communal Award, the award provided for separate Hindu, ‘Untouchable’ & Muslim electorates for the new federal legislatures treating Hindu & Harijans as two separate political entities. Poona Pact regarding SC representation was signed. Harijan Sewak Sabha was formed.3rd RTC was held. In 1935 Rahmat Ali published a leaflet on the formation of Pakistan.

20 . Lord Linlithgow: - (1937-43): Muslim League’s celebrate “Day of Deliverance” on 22nd Dec. 1939. Aug.9, 1942, congress passed “Quit India Resolution”, Cripps Mission.

21. Lord Wavell: (Oct. 1943- March 1947) : - Shimla Conference in June 1945, Cabinet Mission in 1946.

socio-religious movement in india

1. Atmiya Sabha:- founded in 1816 by the reformer, Rammohun Roy at Calcutta.

2. Brahmo Smaj:- It was conceived at Kolkata in 1830 by Dwarkanath Tagore and Ram Mohan Roy as reformation of the prevailing Brahmanism of the time (specifically Kulin practices) and began the Bengal Renaissance of the 19th century pioneering all religious, social and educational advance of the Hindu community in the 19th century.

3. Tattvabodhini Sabha: - On 6 October 1839 Debendranath Tagore, son of (Prince) Dwarkanath Tagore, established Tattvaranjini Sabha which was shortly thereafter renamed the Tattwabodhini (Truth-seekers) Sabha.

4. Arya Samaj:- founded by Swami Dayananda in 10th April 1875. The Satyarth Prakash (English title: The Light of Truth) is a 1875 book written by Swami Dayanand

5. Young Bengal Movement:- The Young Bengal movement founded in 1827, was a group of radical Bengali free thinkers emerging from Hindu College, Calcutta in the early 19th century. They were also known as Derozians, after their firebrand teacher at Hindu College, Henry Louis Vivian Derozio.

6. Prarthna Smaj:- It is founded by Sir Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar, a noted Sanskrit scholar, Dr. Atmaram Pandurang, Narayan Chandavarkar, and Justice Mahadev Govinda Ranade in 1867. It is a movement for religious and social reform in Maharashtra based on previous reform movements and traditions of Maharashtra. The direct predecessor of the Prarthana Samaj in Mumbai was the Paramahamsa Sabha, a secret society for the furtherance of liberal ideas formed in 1849 by Ram Balkrishna Jaykar and others in Mumbai.

7. Radha Swami Movement:- It was founded in 1861 at Agra by Tulsi Ram (Shiv Dayal Saheb).

8. Ved Samaj: - Formed along the lines of the Brahmo Samaj, the Veda Samaj of Madras was founded in 1864. The real force behind the Veda Samaj was K Sridharalu Naidu.

9. Shudhi Movement:- purification was started Arya Samaj, and its founder Swami Dayanand Saraswati and his followers like Swami Shraddhanand, who also worked on the Sangathan consolidation aspect of Hinduism, in North India, especially Punjab in early 1900s, though it gradually spread across India

10. RamKrishan Mission:- The Ramakrishna Mission is a philanthropic, volunteer organization founded by Sri Ramakrishna's chief disciple Swami Vivekananda on May 1, 1897. The Mission, which is headquartered at Belur Math near Kolkata, India, subscribes to the ancient Hindu philosophy of Vedanta. It is affiliated with the monastic organization Ramakrishna Math, with whom it shares members.

11. Theosophical Society:- The society was founded in United States by Madame Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott who later came to India and founded the headquarters at Adyar in Madras in 1886.

12. Satya Shodhak Samaj:- Satyashodhak Samaj is a religion established by Mahatma Jyotirao Phule on September 24, 1873. This was started as a group whose main aim was to liberate the social Shudra and Untouchables castes from exploitation and oppression

13. Ahamadiya Movement:- Ahmadiyya is a religious movement founded in 1889 originating with the life and teachings of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad

14. Aligarh Movement:- The most important reformer among the Muslims was Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan .he appealed to his people to return to the original Islamic principle of purity and simplicity. He declared that the Quran alone was the authoritative work for Islam and all other Islamic writing was secondary. He advocated English education for the regeneration of Muslims in India. He started building new schools and founded an association called the Scientific Society in 1864. His greatest achievement was the foundation of the Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875.It mainly provided for education in the humanities and sciences through English medium. He was opposed to the participation of Muslims of Muslims in the activities of Indian National Congress. He wanted more time for the Muslims to organize and consolidate their position through good relations with British rulers. Besides introducing modern education among the Muslims Sayyid Ahmad Khan advocated the removal of many social prejudices that kept the community backward.

15. Servants of India Society: - The Servants of India Society was formed in Pune, Maharashtra, on June 12, 1905 by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Thursday, April 15, 2010

Making of constitution - 5

Election Commission and Political Parties

1. The election commission of India was set up in January, 1950. Sukumar Sen became the first Chief Election Commissioner.

2. Art. 324 of the Indian constitution provides for an independent Election Commission for the ‘superintendence, direction and control of the electoral roll and the conduct of elections’ in India.

3. Art. 324 says that there is no upper limit on the number of election Commissioners.

4. The election Commission is not responsible for the conduct of local body elections.

5. In 1990, Dinesh Goswami Committee recommended that the Election Commission be a 3-membered body (Thus, Art. 324 was amended). Also at its constitution, Chief Justice and Leader of Opposition ought to be constituted.

6. The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from office before expiry of his term by the President on the basis of a resolution passed by the Parliament by a special majority on the grounds of proven misbehaviour or incapacity (same as that of judge of Supreme Court). The other Election Commissioner may be removed by the President on the recommendation of the CEC.

7. Till 1989, the Election Commission was single member. Just before the 1989 general election, two Election Commissioner were appointed, making the body multi-member.
8. Election commissioners are appointed for a 5 year term or continue till the age of 65 year, whichever is earlier. They are not eligible for re-appointment. Also they cannot hold any office of profit after their retirement.
9. Art. 326: - The election to the House of People and to the Legislative Assembly of every state shall be held on the basis of adult suffrage.
10. Art. 325: - No person shall be ineligible for inclusion in any electoral roll on the ground only of religion, race, caste, sex or any of them.
11. First parliamentary election held from October 1951 to February 1952. Congress won 364 of the 489 seats in the first Lok Sabha. The communist Party of India came next with 16 seats.
12. In 1959 Centre dismissed the E.M.S. Namboodiripad Communist government in Kerala under Article 356 of the Constitution and this was the first instance of the misuse of constitutional emergency powers.
13. CPI went through a major split in 1964 following the ideological rift between Soviet Union and China. The pro-Soviet faction remained as the CPI, while the opponents formed the CPI (M).
14. The Bharatiya Jana Sangh was formed on Oct. 21, 1951 with Shyama Prasad Mukherjee as its founder President. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee was opposed to India’s policy of autonomy to J & K.
15. B.J.P. was founded in 1980.
16. D.M.K. was formed in 1949 by C.N. Annadurai. D.M.K. split into D.M.K. & A.I.D.M.K. in 1972.
17. T.D.P. was formed in 1983 by N.T.Rama Rao.
18. Bhartiya Kranti Dal was formed in Aug . 1974 by Ch. Charan Singh.
19. Akali Dal was founded on 13th Dec. 1920.
20. Samajwadi Party was founded on Oct.4, 1992.
21. Swatantra Party was formed in August 1959 after Nagpur resolution, led by C. Rajagopalachari, K.M.Munshi, N.G. Ranga and Minoo Masani.
22. Janta Party was formed on 1st May, 1977.
23. Lok Dal was formed in September, 1979.
24. To be recognized as a National Party, a party needs to secure at least 6% of the valid votes polled in any four or more states in a general election to the Lok Sabha or State Assembly. In addition to it, it has to win at least 4 seats in the Lok Sabha from any state or States as well. Or a party can also secure the status of a national party if it secure atleast 2% seats in the Lok Sabha subject to the conditions that these members are elected from atleast three separate states.
25. In case a political party loses recognition as national or state party, it will not lose its allotted symbol with immediate effect. They will be given a period of 6 years to elevate their status and in that period, they are free to use their symbols in the elections.

Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Making of constitution -4

Part – V : The Union
Chapter – 1: The Executive

1. President: - Executive head of the State, First citizen of the Country.

2. Art. 52: - There shall be a president of India.

3. Art. 53: - The executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him. The Supreme Command of the Defence forces of the Union is also vested in the President (Art. 53 (2)).

4. Art. 54: - Election of President: - The electoral college shall consists of – the elected members of both Houses of Parliament; the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States; and the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of Union Territories of Delhi and Pondicherry (According to the 70th Amendment Act 1992, the expression ‘States” includes the National Capital Territory of Delhi and the UT of Pondichery).

5. Art. 55: - Manner of election of President. The election is held through the system of proportional representation by means of the single –transferable vote by secret ballot.

6. Art. 56: - The term of office of President is Fiver Years form the date on which he enters upon his office.

7. Art. 57: - This article says that there is no upper limit on the number of times a person can become President. However, in his speech in Parliament in 1961, PM Nehru observed that we should adopt a convention that no person shall be a President for more than two terms, and that no amendment of the constitution was necessary to enjoin this.

8. Art. 58: - deals with the qualification for President. i.e. He must be a citizen of India, completed 35 years in age, eligible to be a member of Lok Sabha, must not hold any Govt. post. Exceptions are: President and Vice President, Governor of any State and Minister of Union or States.

9. Art. 59: - Conditions of President’s Office: - Takes oath in presence of Chief Justice of India, or in his absence, senior most judge of Supreme Court.

10. Art. 60: - Oath or affirmation of President:-

11. Art. 61: - deals with the impeachment procedure of the President; impeachment procedure is a quasi- judicial procedure; can be impeached only on the ground of violation of constitution. The impeachment procedure can be initiated in either house of the Parliament. The Charge must come in the form of a proposal which must be signed by at least one fourth of the total membership of that House. Before the resolution could be passed, a 14 days notice must be given to the President. If, after the notice, the House passes the resolution by a majority of not less than 2/3rd membership of that House, the matter will be referred to the other House. If other House also passes the resolution by a majority of not less than 2/3rd membership of that House, the President stands impeached from his Office from the date on which the motion is passed.

12. Art. 62: - In case the office falls vacant due to death, resignation or removal, the Vice – President acts as President. If he is not available then Chief Justice, if not then senior most Judge of Supreme Court acts as the President. The election is to be held within 6 months of the vacancy.

13. Supreme Court inquires all disputes regarding President’s election.

14. In the history of President election, V.V. Giri is the only person who won the election of the President as an independent candidate in 1969.

15. In July 1977, Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy was elected unopposed as no one else filed nomination for the post of the President.

16. Only once in the history of India, Just. M. Hidayatullah Chief Justice of Supreme Court, discharged the duties of the President of India in 1969. He is the only person to perform the functions of the President two times in two different capacities, the first time in 1969 being the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and the second time being the Vice President of India in 1982.

17. President can nominated 12 members to Rajya Sabha and 2 members of Anglo-Indian community in Lok Sabha if they haven’t received adequate representation.

18. When a bill is sent to the President after it has been passed by the Parliament, he can: (a) Give his assent to the Bill or (b) Withhold his assent to the Bill or (c) Return the Bill (if it is not a Money Bill or a Constitutional Amendment Bill) for reconsideration of the Parliament although only once.

19. President has the powers to veto w.r.t. Bills passed by the Parliament. He enjoys three types of veto powers: (a) Absolute Veto: - Withholding the assent to the Bill. Normally, it is exercised only in the case of private member’s Bill. (b) Suspense Veto: - It is exercised when instead of refusing his assent out rightly to a bill, the President returns the Bill or part of it for the reconsideration and the Parliament makes it obligatory on him to give his assent to it. In this case, the veto power is merely of suspensive nature. (c) Pocket veto: - Since the constitution does not provide any time limit within which the President is to declare his assent or refusal, the President could exercise this veto by not taking any action for an indefinite time; but if the ministry has a strong backing in Parliament, it would not be possible for him to do so. Pocket veto was used in 1986 by the then President Giani Zail Singh in the Postal Bill.

20. President can enact laws through ordinance when the Parliament is in recess (Art. 123). These ordinance must be passed by Parliament within 6 weeks of reassembly.

21. All money bills can originate in Parliament only on recommendation of President.

22. No demand for grant can be made except on his recommendation.

23. Emergency powers of President:
a). National Emergency (Art. 352) :- On the ground of security threats to India by war, external aggression or armed rebellion. The President can proclaim this emergency only after receiving a written recommendation from the Cabinet. The proclamation of emergency must be approved by the Parliament with in one month. If approved, it will continue for six months. It can be extended for an indefinite period with an approval of the Parliament for every six months. It has been proclaimed three times so far. 1962, 1971, 1975. President can suspend the operation of Fundamental Rights (except Art 20 & 21) during this type of emergency. Art. 19 can only be suspended in case of external agency and not in case of internal emergency. The Parliament can make laws on items mentioned in the State list during the period of National Emergency.
b). State Emergency (Art. 356): - Emergency due to failure of constitutional machinery in state. The President’s rule can be imposed when the President is satisfied, on the basis of either a report of the State Governor or otherwise, that the governance of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the constitution. The proclamation of the President’s Rule should be approved by the Parliament within two months. If approved, it remains in force for 6 months from the date of proclamation of the state emergency. It can be extended for a maximum period of three years with the approval of the Parliament every six months. The state Governor, on behalf of the President carries on the State administration with the help of the advisors appointed by the President or the Chief Secretary of the State. The president’s rule has been imposed more than 100 times.
c) Financial Emergency (Art. 360) : - The president can proclaim Financial Emergency if he is satisfied that the financial stability or the credit of India or any part there of is threatened. Such a proclamation must be approved by the Parliament within two months. During the Emergency, the President can issue directions for the reduction of salaries and allowances of all or any class of persons serving under the state. Financial emergency has not been declared so far.
24. Presidents of India
Name Tenure
From To
1. Dr. Rajendra Prasad 26-01-1950 13-05-1962
2. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan 13-05-1962 13-05-1967
3. Dr. Zakir Hussain 13-05-1967 03-05-1969
Acting: - V.V.Giri (Vice Pr.) 03-05-1969 20-07-1969
Acting: - Just. M. Hidayatullah (acting- CJI) 20-07-1969 24-08-1969
4.V. V. Giri 24-08-1969 24-08-1974
5. F. Ali Ahmed 24-08-1974 11-02-1977
Acting: -B.D.Jati 11-02-1977 25-07-1977
6. N. Sanjeeva Reddy 25-07-1977 25-07-1982
7. Gaini Jail Singh 25-07-1982 25-07-1987
8. R. Venkataraman 25-07-1987 25-07-1992
9. Dr. S. D. Sharma 25-07-1992 25-07-1997
10. K. R. Narayanan 25-07-1997 25-07-2002
11. Dr. A.P.J.Abdul Kalam 25-07-2002 25-07-2007
12. Pratibha Patil 25-07-2007 Till date
25. Dr. Zakir Hussain got the Bharat Ratna Award before becoming the President of India.
26. The name of the candidates for the office of President of India hasto be proposed by any 50 members of the electoral college.
27. The two ordinance which the President declined to promulagate for reasons of constitutional properiety on the eve of the election to the Eleventh Lok Sabha in 1996, related to - the curtailment of the election compaign period and the reservation of Jobs for Dalit Christians.
28. 42nd Amendment of the Constitution bound the President to accept the advise of the Council of Ministers.
29. President appoints State Governors, Ambassadors, Chief Justice and otherJudges of the Supreme Court and High courts, Attorney General, Chairman and other Members of UPSC, Finance commission (Art. 260)
30. President address is prepared by the PM and his cabinet.
31. V.V. Giri resigend from the Office of Vice President to contest for the office of President.
32. President can dissolve the Lok Sabha before the expiry of its normal term of 5 years on the recommendation of Prime Minister.
33. Art. 72: - President power to grand pardon
34. Illness cannot be the reason for removal of President of India.
35. Under Art. 143 President of India can seek advice from Supreme Court.
36. The President under Art. 331 may nominate two members of Anglo-Indian Community in Parliament, if that community is not adequately represented in the House of the People.

Tuesday, April 13, 2010

Making of constitution - 6

Schedule in Constitution
  1. First Schedule: - List of States and UTs.
  2. Second Schedule: - Salary of President, Governors, Chief Judges, Judges of High Court and Supreme Court, Comptroller and Auditor General.
  3. Third Schedule: - Forms of Oaths & affirmations.
  4. Fourth Schedule: - Allocate seats for each State of India in Rajya Sabha.
  5. Fifth Schedule: - Administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Tribes.
  6. Sixth Schedule: - Provisons for administration of Tribal area in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh.
  7. Seventh Schedule: - Gives allocation of powers and functions between Union and States contains three lists: Union List contains 97 subjects, States List contains 66 subjects and Concurrent List contains 47 subjects.
  8. Eighth Schedule: - List of 22 language of india recognized by constitution. Sindhi was added in 1967 by 21st Amendment. Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were added in 1992 by 71st amendment and Santhali, Maithali, Bodo and Dogri were added in 2003 by 92nd amendment.
  9. Ninth Schedule: - Added by 1st Amendment in 1951. Contains acts and orders related to land, railways and industries.
  10. Tenth Schedule: - Added by 52nd Amendment in 1985. Contains provision of disqualification on ground of defection.
  11. Eleventh Schedule: - Added by 73nd Amendment in 1992. Contains provisions of Panchyati Raj.
  12. Twelfth Schedule: - Added by 74th Amendment in 1992. Contains provision of Muncipal Corporation.

Monday, April 12, 2010

Making of Indian Constitution - 3

1. Directive Principle of State Policy form Part IV of the constitution contains articles from 36 to 51.

2. Art. 39: - equal justice and free legal aid.

3. Art. 40: - Organisation of village Panchyat.

4. Art. 41: - Right to education, work and to public assistance.

5. Art. 42: - THe state shall make effective provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.

6. Art. 43: - The shate shall secure to all workers a living wage, decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities. The state shall also promote cottage industries in rural areas on cooperative basis.

7. Art. 44: - Uniform civil code.

8. Art. 45: - Provision of free compulsory education for children of age group 5 - 14 years.

9. Art. 46: - safeguard of educational and economic interests of weaker sections specially SC and ST.

10. Art. 47: - Improvement of public health.

11. Art. 48: - Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry and protection of environment.

12. Art. 49: - Protection of monuments and places and objects of national interests.

13. Art. 50: - Separation of judiciary from executive.

14. Art. 51: - Promotion of international peace

15. Art. 51 (A): - 10 Fundamental Duties were added by 42 nd Amendment, 1976. The 11th duty i.e. to provide opportunities for education to his child or as the case may be , ward between the age of 6 - 14 years - was added by the Constitution 86th Amendment Act.

16. According to B.N.Rau Directive Principle of State Policy were intended as 'Moral percepts for the authorities of the state..... they ahve at least an educative value.

17. Granville Austin considers DPSP to be 'aimed at furthering the goals of the social revolution or ... to foster this revolution by establishing the conditions necessary for its achievement.'

18. Ivor Jennings characterised DPSP as 'Pious aspiration'

19. India borrowed the idea of the DPSP from constitution of Ireland.

20. In the DPSP, the concept of a welfare state find elaboration.

21. The DPSP are non - justiciable.

22. 'DPSP are like a cheque on a bank payable at the convenience of the bank' - K. T. Shah.

23. DPSP seek to make the constitution an instrument of social change.

24. The enforcement of DPSP depends upon the resources available witht the government.

25. B.R. Ambedkar wanted DPSP to be the basis of the all future legislation.

26. 42nd Amendments made additions to the DPSP with regard to - participation of workers in the management of industry, protection of the environment and free legal aid to the poor.

27. In State of TamilNadu Vs. L. Abu Kavur Bai case in 1984, the Supreme court held that although directive principles are not enforceable, yet the court shouldn't avoid them.

28. Art. 350(A): - It is the duty of the Ofiicers of Concerned states to provide primary education in mother tongure to the people of minorities particularly to the children of minorities class.

29. Art. 351: - It will be the duty of the Union to spread Hindi language amongst the people of India which will develop our cultural and social element.

30. Art. 355: It will be under consideration to appoint the people of SC & ST in and as Union or states.

Sunday, April 11, 2010

Persons, places and Misc info

1. Deep Joshi:- Prominent Indian Social activist came into news recently as he has been selected for the prestigious Ramon Magsaysay Award for 2009 for ‘development of rural communities.

2. Jharia: - The place in Jharkhand came into news recently as Government of India has cleared the one of the biggest rehabilitation plans in the world to relocate to safer areas those families whose houses face the threat of being sucked in by underground fires raging for the last 40 years or so.

3. Gangavaram port:- The port in Andhra Pradesh developed by the state government and D.V.S. Raju led consortium under the public private partnership mode is dedicated to the nation recently.

4. Unique identification authority: - It is an agency formed by the government of India to steer the ambitious scheme of creating a multipurpose unique identification database of all citizens in the country. Infosys co-founder Nadan Nilekani has been appointed as its chairman. Under this project a unique identification number will be assigned to each resident in the country that will be permanent. It is believed that terrorist who infiltrate into the country will find it impossible to acquire such cards. They can hence be easily identified. Each citizen will get a number which would entitle him to get his or her driving license, passport or PAN card. A citizen without the number would not be entitled for benefit from different government schemes.

5. Nalin Suri:- Secretary in Ministry of external affair came into news recently as He has been named as the next high commissioner to the UK.

6. Pullela Gopichand:- He is a former badminton star who has won the Arjun Award , the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award and the Padma Shree. He become the most decorated Indian sportstar in terms of National awards as he has recently been given Dronacharya Award.

7. Nova- G: - It is the name of World’s fastest and most powerful supercomputer which can rearrange its internal circuitry to suit the task at hand recently became operational at the Florida University.

8. Ebrahim Alkazi: - Veteran theater director came into news recently as he has been felicitated with ‘Hindiratna Samman – 2009.

9. Mitchell Johnson:- He is a cricketer from Australia. He came into news recently as he has been awarded as the ICC cricketer of the year award .

10. Oceansat – 2: - It was recently launched successfully by PSLV –C14 from the Sriharikota spaceport. It is India’s 16th remote sensing satellite and is intended for identification of potential fishing zones, sea state forecasting, coastal zone studies and providing inputs for weather forecasting and climatic studies.

11. 50 years of Doordarshan: - Doordarshan has completed 50 years of its journey on September 15, 2009. Although it started its working with just one small transmitter, it is today the largest broadcast network in the world with 31 channels, 66 studio, 1,413 transmitters and access to 128 million household. Though Doordarshan has assets and resources that are unmatched, it has failed to produce good and contemporary content as well as being commercially viable. It stills continue to survive on government grants.

12. India relation with Bangladesh: - India has cordial relation with Bangladesh. Recently both the country has signed an agreement on combating international terrorism, organized crime and drug trafficking. Bangladesh has agreed to provide access to the Ashuganj port to facilitate transportation of consignment for power in Tripura. India has agreed to Bangladesh to facilitate Nepal-Bangladesh and Bhutan Bangladesh connectivity.

13. Saakshar Bharat Mission:- The National Mission for Female Literacy, christened as Saakshar Bharat Mission was launched recently by PM on September 8, to mark International Literacy Day. The mission is a renewed effort to make 70million people – 60 million of them women – functionally literate by 2012 and plug the gender gap that has persisted despite the two decade old literacy drive in mission mode. The mission would fully involve the community in its implementation and utilize the potential of panchyati raj institutions and women’s self help groups.

14. Duranto Express: - It is the name of fastest train in the country recently started between Sealdah and Delhi.

15. Yukio Hatoyama: - He came into news recently as he has been elected as Japan’s PM following his party’s landslide victory in general elections.

16. Rajendra Shekhawat: - He is the son of President of India. He came into news recently as he has been elected to Maharashtra Legislative Assembly from Amravati constituency.

17. Ramesh Chandra Tripathi: - Wing commander came into news recently as he has made recently the highest parachute landing at the foot of Mt. Everest.

18. India Roads 2009- An international conference on road infrastructure named as India Road 2009: Better road better India – outlook, opportunity and way ahead’ was recently held in New Delhi.

19. Michael Jorden: - Considered as one of the greatest basketball player of all time came into news recently as he has been inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame.

20. Mao Xinyu:- He is the grandson of China’s legendary Mao Zedong. He came into news recently as he become the youngest Major General in the History of China’s People’s Liberation Army.

21. Harishchandrachi Factory: - It is the name of a Marathi Film, based on the making of the country’s first film. This film was chosen India’s official entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the Oscar Awards.

22. Ehud Olmert: - He is former PM of Israel. He came into news recently as he became the first PM in the country’s history to face criminal charges.

23. Daman Weaver: - He is an 11 year old Florida based reporter. He became the youngest to interview US President Barack Obama.

24. Jinnah: India, Partition, Independence: The book has been authored by Sh. Jaswant Singh. This book has crated furor in BJP and results in the expulsion of Shri Jaswant Singh from the party.

25. Berlin: - German city came into news recently in connection with World Health Summit.

26. Alang: - It is a ship breaking yard off the Bhavnagar coast in Gujrat. It was in thick controversy recently over the move to allow an allegedly contaminated ship Platinum-II to berth there.

27. Banstala: - It is a railway station near Jhargram town in West Bengal. It came into news recently as supporters of Maoist backed PSBJC detained the New Delhi bound Rajdhani Express from Bhubneshwar for five hours.

28. Oasis of Sea:- It the name of world’s largest cruise liner that began its maiden voyage to Florida recently from a shipyard in Finland.

29. Bret Lee:- He came into news recently as he was named Man of the Series in the recently concluded Champions League Twenty-20 Cricket Championship.

30. Geeta Vardan:- She has recently become the first woman in the history of the ISRO to become the Director of a national centre ADRIN in Hydrabad .

31. Lee Myung bak : - He is president of the Republic of Korea. He came into news recently as he was the Chief Guest of the Republic Day.

Making of constitution - 2

1. The Preamble is termed as 'Political Horoscope' by K.M.Munshi, 'Key to the Constitution' by Earnest Barker and 'Soul of the Constitution' by Thakurdas Bhargav.

2. D.D.Basu terms Indian Constitution as mixture of unitary and federal features. According to K.C.Wheare, It is 'quasi federal', it is less federal and more unitary. For Prof. Alexandro wicz, 'India is a case of 'Sui Generis' i.e. unique in character. Fro Sir Ivor Jennings, it is a federal with strong centralising tendency, for Granvile Austin, it is an example of 'co-operative federalism'. For M.V. Paylee, indian constitution is a 'Paradise of Lawyers'

3. Andhra Pradesh was the first state created on the basis of language in 1953 following the death of Potti Sriramulu (a congress leader who went on an indefinite fast for demanding separate state, that lead to his death after 56 days). The state of Indian union were re-organised on the basis of language in 1956 following the recommendation of State Reorganisation Commission 1955, headed by Fazal Ali, other two members of the Commission were K.M.Panikar and H.N.Kunzru.

4. J & K acceded to India on October 26, 1947. The state of J & K has been given special status under Article 370 which became operative on Nov. 17, 1952. The state has a separate constitution which was drafted by the constitutent Assembly of J & K and became effective on Jan 26, 1957. The Provision of Art. 370 cannot be amended by Parliament.

5. The Union Territory of Pondicherry became part of Indian Union in 1962 after French left from India. Pondichery consists of four areas scattered in different regions - Pondichery and Karakal in Tamil Nadu, Yanam in Andhra Pradesh and Mahe in Kerala.

6. Goa, Daman and Diu was added as a UT by the Constitution (12th Amendment ) Act, 1962.

7. Delhi got a special status by the constitution 69th Amendment, 1991.

8. The Bombay Re-organisation Act, 1960, partitioned the State of Bombay to form the new state of Gujrat and to name the residue of Bombay as Maharashtra.

9.Fundamental Rights have been provided in the Part III (Art. 12- 35) of the Constitution.

10. Under the Rights to Constitutional Remedies, both Supreme Court and High court can issue writs of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Quo-Warranto, Prohibition and certiorari. The Right to Constitutional Remedies has been described by Dr. Ambedkar as the soul of the constitution.

11. Seven Fundamental Rights were provided in the original Constitution. But the Right to Property has been repealed as Fundamental Right and has been converted into an ordinary legal right under Article 300A by the 44th Amendment in 1978 during the tenure of Morarji Desai.

12. Habeas Corpus is a bulwark of personal freedom. Habeas Corpus is a writ in the nature of order calling upon the person who has detained another to produce the latter before the court to let the court know on what ground he has been confined.

13. Mandamus: - literally means command. It commands the person whom it is addressed to perform some public duty which he has refused to perform.

14. Quo warranto is a proceeding whereby the court enquires in to the legality of the claim which a party asserts to a public office. It calls upon a person to show under what authority he is holding the office.

15. The Writ of ‘Certiorari’ is issued by a superior court to an inferior court to transfer the record of proceeding in a case for its review.

16. Fundamental Rights are generally suspended during operation of National Emergency. Right to Freedom Under Art. 19 is automatically suspended. Other Rights may be suspended by a declaration of the President to that effect. But Rights to Life and Personal Liberty under Art. 20 and 21 cannot be suspended even during National Emergency. Articles 15, 16, 19, 20 and 30 are conferred to indian citizens only and the saem are denied to aliens.

17. Article -14 - Right to Equality provide equality before law. (right to equality 14-18)

18. Art. 15. – No discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

19. Art. 16. : Equality of opportunity in matters of public appointment.

20. Art. 17: Abolition of untouchability.

21. Art. 18. Abolition of titles.

22. Art. 19. : Rights regarding freedom of speech. (Right to freedom 19- 24)

23. Art. 20 : Protection in respect of conviction for offences.

24. Art. 21 : - Protection of life and property.

25. Art. 22: - Protection against arrest and detention.

26. Art 23 : - Prohibition of traffic in human being and forced labour.

27. Art 24 : - Prohibition of employment of children in factories.

28. Art. 25: - Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion. (right to freedom of religion 25 - 28)

29. Art. 26: - Freedom to manage religious affairs.

30. Art. 29: Protection of minorities interests. (cultural and Educational rights 29-31)

31. Art. 30: - Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institution.

32. Art. 32: - Right to constitutional remedies.

33. Art. 32 (1): Supreme court has been assigned by the Constitution a special role as ‘Protector and Guarantor of fundamental rights’.

34. In Minerva Mills case the Supreme Court strike down the provision of the constitution that accorded primacy to Directive Principles of State Policy over Fundamental Rights. Supreme court take the view that the Fundamental Right and Directive Principles of State Policy are complementary to each other and there was no need to sacrifice one for other.

35. RTI is a corollary of the Fundamental Right of freedom of Speech and Expression – Art. 19 (1)

36. The constitution -86th Amendment Act 2002 has inserted in the constitution a new article 21-A. The new article deals with the Right to Education. It reads – ‘The state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of 6 – 14 years in such manner as the state may , by law, determine.’

37. Art. 31-C gives supremacy to Directive Principle of State Policy over Fundamental Rights. This was introduced in 1971, by the 25th Amendment enacted with respect to the Directive Principles given in Art. 39.

38. Art. 13: - The rights conferred under Part III cannot be abridged or taken away by laws or executive order of the state. They can only be modified or taken away by a Constitutional Amendment.

39. Art. 15 (5) : By 93rd Amendment – 27% reservation was provided to OBC in professional courses.

40. Art. 18: - Bharat Ratna, Padma awards are not title but honours conferred by the state.

41. Under Art. 226 a High Court can issue writs not only for the purpose of enforcement of fundamental rights but also for the redress of any other injuries or illegality, owing to contravention of the ordinary law, provided certain conditions are satisfied.

42. Supreme Court has been assigned by the Constitution a special role as 'the protector and guarantor of fundamental rights' by Art. 32(1).

43. In 1931, The INC at its Karachi Session, presided over by Sardar Patel, had adopted a resolution on Fundamental Rights.

44. In Golaknath Case Vs State of Punjab, the Supreme Court held that the Parliament could not amend the Fundamental Rights under Part III of the Constitution. The Parliament on its part, through 24th Amendment in 1971, assumed for itself the power to amend Fundamental Rights.


Saturday, April 10, 2010

Making of Indian Constitution-1

1.Features of Federal Constitution: - a) Double seat of government. B) Division of power c) Two houses of parliament.

2.Features of Unitary constitution: - a) Single citizenship b) Single constitution c)Single supreme court d) Appointment of Governors.

3. Minerva Mills Case (1980): - nullify the provisions of 42nd Amendments and held that there could be not any amendment in the basic structure of the constitution.

4. Golaknath Case: - Supreme Court held that the Parliament could not amend the fundamental rights.

5. Keshavanand Bharti vs State of Kerala Case (1973) : - Supreme court held that the Preamble was part of the constitution and contained its basic structure and it can be amended. Following this ruling, the 42nd amendment, 1976 inserted the words ‘Socialist’ , ‘Secular’ , and ‘Integrity’ in the Preamble.

6. The idea of constitution was given by M.N.Roy.

7. The demand for a constituent Assembly to draft Indian constitution was for the first time, raised by the Congress in 1935. The British Government accepted the demand for the first time in principle in the August Proposals of 1940.

8. The constituent Assembly was constituted in Nov. 1946 through indirect election of its members by provincial legislatures – through the single transferable vote system of proportional representation - under the provision of Cabinet Mission Plan, 1946.

9. The Assembly consisted of total 389 members, of which 292 were to be elected from provinces, 93 were to be nominated from Princely states and four members were to be nominated from Chief Commissioner’s Areas. Roughly one member was to represent a population of 10 lakh.

10. The Mountbatten plan of 3rd June, 1947 announced partition of the country and a separate constituent Assembly for the proposed state of Pakistan. Thus the membership of Indian constituent Assembly was reduced to 299 after partition and only 284 members signed the Constitution on 26th November, 1949.

11. The first meeting of the constitution Assembly was held on Dec.9, 1946 which was boycotted by Muslim League. Constituent Assembly reassembled on August 14, 1947.

12. Dr. Sachchidanand Sinha was elected as temporary Chairman and later Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as permanent President of the Constituent Assembly.

13. Sh. B.N.Rau was appointed as Legal Advisor to the Constituent Assembly. H.A.S. Exam (H.P.P.S.C.)

14. To facilitate the work of Constitution making, the Assembly appointed 22 Committees, of which 10 were on Procedural Affairs and 12 on Substantive Affairs.

15. The most important committee was the seven member Drafting Committee headed by Dr. B.R.Ambedkar, which was set up on August 29,1947. The other members of the committee were- N. Gopalswami Ayyangar, Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar,K.M.Munshi, Mohammad Saadullah, B.L. Mittar (replaced by N. Madhav Rau) and D.P.Khaitan (who died in 1948 and was replaced by T.T. Krishnamachari).

16. Provincial Constitution Committee –members 25 , Chairman – Sardar Patel

17. Committee on Union Constitution – Members – 15 – Chairman – J.L.Nehru

18. Union Power Committee – Members – 9 – Chairman – J.L.Nehru

19. Committee on Fundamental Rights and Minorities – Members – 15 – Chairman – Sardar Patel

20. Steering Committee – Members – 3– Chairman – K.M. Munshi.

21. Flag Committee – Chairman – J. B. Kriplani.

22. Vice Chairman of Constituent Assembly – H.C. Mookharjee.

23. The Drafting Committee finalized the Draft Constitution of India on Feb 21, 1948.

24. The first reading of the Draft Constitution was held from 21st Feb, 1948 to 26th Oct. 1948. The second reading was completed by Constituent Assembly between 15th Nov 1948 to 17th Oct 1949. And for the third reading the assembly met on Nov 14, 1949 and finished it on Nov 26, 1949.

25. Some of the provision of the constitution came into force on 26th Nov. 1949 and the remaining provisions of the Constitution came into force on 26th Jan, 1950. January 26 was selected as the date of Commencement of Indian Constitution because of its historical significance. It was on this date in 1930 that Indian people observed ‘Independence Day’ following the resolution of Congress session held in Dec. 1929 at Lahore. H.A.S. (H.P.P.S.C.)

26. The Constituent Assembly came to end on 24th January 1950 but it emerged as provisional parliament on 26th January till the election of Lok Sabha.

27. Dr. Ambedkar is recognized as ‘Father of the Indian Constitution’.

28. J.L.Nehru introduced Objective Resolution on 13th December 1946 which was adopted on January 22, 1947. Its modified version forms the Preamble of Indian Constitution. H.A.S. (H.P.P.S.C.)

29. Interim Government was formed on 2nd Sept. 1946. Portfolio held in interim government : Food and Agriculture – Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Defence – Baldev Singh, Finance – Liyakat Ali Khan, H.A.S. (H.P.P.S.C.)

Law – B.R. Ambedkar ,Commerce - Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar, Home – Sardar Patel,

30. Constitution originally contained 395 articles and 8 schedules. H.A.S. (H.P.P.S.C.)

Constituent Assembly took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to frame the Constitution. An amount of Rs. 64 lakh was spent in making the Constitution. AS many as 7365 amendments were proposed in the Draft constitution and number of visitors came to witness the proceeding of the constituent Assembly were 53000. First draft of the constitution presented in Oct. 1947 contained only 315 articles and 8 schedules.