Saturday, July 7, 2012

Facts for H.A.S. Exam -1

1.       “Our nation is like a tree of which the original trunk is swarajya and the branches are swadeshi and boycott.” – B.G. Tilak.
2.       The first British factory or trading post was established in 1612 at Surat.
3.       In 1938, Italy became the first European country to win a World Cup Football title in a foreign country.
4.       Ramanujan’s first paper presented to the London Mathematical Society in 1914 was about equations to create an approximation of pi.
5.       World’s first women paramilitary pipe band in CRPF.
6.       Govt. to infuse Rs. 15,500 crore in PSU banks during the current fiscal to enhance their financial strength.
7.       IIT Bombay  will set up a new campus in Brooklyn, New York city.
8.       Government has decided to set up 14 Innovation Universities during 12th FYP. The Innovation Universities are aimed at making India a global knowledge hub.
9.       The Bihar Govt. had proposed to set up Asia’s first dolphin research centre to strengthen conservation efforts to save the endangered mammal.
10.   Bharti Airtel launched India’s first 4G services in Kolkatta.
11.   China installs largest optical telescope in Antarctica.
12.   The world’s highest and longest tunnel to tunnel bridge was opened to Traffic in Hunan province of Central China.
13.   Romanian government lost a vote of confidence two months after taking office. Romania is the EU’s second poorest member which cut salaries and raised sales tax to put this economy on a more solid footing , resulted in the fall of government.
14.   Netherlands government  also collapse after failing to agree a deal to cut the country’s budget deficit. PM Mark Ruttle resigned following the failure of talks with government partners.
15.   The Time’s Magazine list has included, the Taj Mahal and The Mahabodhi Temple among the most important historical places of the World.

The People of H.P.

1.    The Khasas were democratic in nature. They organized themselves into families and villages and elected ‘Mavi’ / ‘Mavana’ meaning a strong person among themselves.
2.    Poltu and Siddu are special dishes of Khasas.
3.     Biyah, Praino and Gadar – are three forms of marriage in Khasas.
4.     Khoond -  a warrior group in Khasas.
5.    Swangla is a ST exclusively living in the Pattan Valley along the Chandra Bhaga in L &S. There are two types of languages spoken by the Swanglas namely ‘Manchhad’ and ‘Chinali’. ‘Bhoti’ is also prevalent but only spoken by the Bodh inhabitants of the valley. ‘Chang’ (local drink) is consumed almost daily by Swangla men.
6.     ‘Garu’ and Mundro’ are the two groups of Swangla which are believed to have come as a result of the Rajput marrying a Bodh and Rajput marrying a girl socially belonging to the lower strata.  ‘Chheti’ ( giving money to the bride) was prevalent in the community. The property is inherited in the male line with all the sons inheriting the father’s property equally. This is known as the law of Pagwand.. A separate room called ‘man’  is kept for worshipping ancestors. The two famous temples of Swanglas are – Triloknath & Markual at Udaipur. Their main sacred centre is Manimahesh in Bharmaur.
7.     Sehna is the chief of Swangla traditional council.
8.      Those professing the Buddhist faith in Swangla community belong to Gelugpa sect.
9.    Gaddis are ‘Seminomadic,’ ‘semi pastoral’, & ‘semi agricultural’ tribe. N.T. Exam – 2009 H.P.P.S.C.
10.  Raja Sansar Chand fell in love with ‘Nokhu’, a pretty Gaddi girl and made her his queen.
11.  Gugga is associated with cattle and is considered the protector of cattle.

H.P.- The People

The People – H.P.
1.    The word Kinner originated from the two Sanskrit words: Kim + Nara, means what kind of strange persons are they? The look of the Kinnaura is that of a ‘halfman and half horse’ means the people with ‘Ashwamukha’.  According to the legend , Pradumna, son of Lord Krishna was the earliest king of the  Kinner.  In his book ‘kumarsambhava’  Kalidas has mentioned about Kinner.
2.    Kinnaur is called as ‘Khunu’ by Tibetans.  Kinners are said to be inhabitants of the Mahand mountains.
3.    In Kinnaur , when ceremonial friendship occurs between a man and a woman, it is called Jokheya, and when it occurs between two women it is called Konech.
4.    Darosh is a kind of marriage. It means to drag forcefully. Darosh is also known as Rakshasas vivah.
5.    Damchalshish – means to have a real relation – starts with love affair and boys and girl elopement resulted in marriage.
6.    Fyayaz is an ornament of forehead of the bride given by boy’s side.
7.    Among the Kinnauras, the property is inherited according to the jathong and kanchhong rules.
8.    In Ropa valley all families blessed with sons offer a goat collectively to the village deity on Ukhyang festival.
9.    Jads are Buddhist. They have occupied the area of Pangi and Chamba. Unmarried girls in the region are known as ‘Jomo’.
10. ‘Parvatia Adim Jati Sevak Sangh’  was founded in 1956 to extend welfare activities among the Gujjars tribe.
11. The Bhairvi classic, ‘Kiratarjuniya’ is woven round the historical battle,  that took place between the Kirata King and Arjuna. Later on, Kiratas came to be known as ‘Mavanas’ or Mavies’. The Kirata’s powerful king was ‘Shambar” , who fought against the Aryan King ‘Divodas’. Rishi Bharadawaj was the advisor of the Aryan King’ Divodas’ . The war between the two lasted for 40 years and has been discussed in the Rig Veda by Rishi Vashishta and Vamdeva. Shambar and his ally, Verchi were killed at a place named ‘Udubraj’. Divodas was succeeded by his son ‘Sudas’ and Bharadwaj by Rish Vashishta.
12. Mansa Devi is the goddess of Snakes.
13. Thoda – martial bow and arrow N.T. Exam – 2011 H.P.P.S.C.
14. The ancestral property is divided among all the sons of the family in Khasa but the eldest, and in some cases, the youngest so gets the additional share of a field and an ancestral house. This is called ‘jethong’ for the eldest brother and ‘Kanishong’ for the youngest brother.  N.T. Exam – 2011 H.P.P.S.C.
15. The Khasas were democratic in nature. They organized themselves into families and villages and elected ‘Mavi’ / ‘Mavana’ meaning a strong person among themselves.