Sunday, May 23, 2010

History -3

1. Mughals were the descendants of Mongols of Mongolia in Central Asia. They had developed the use of artillery in war for the first time.

2. Zahir-ud-din Babar was born in 1483 AD became the king of Farghana at the age of eleven.On the invitation of Daulat Khan Lodhi he came to Panjab. In 1526, the first battle of Panipat was fought between Ibrahim Lodhi & Babar. He established the Mughal Dynasty. He died in 1530AD.Tuzuk-I-Babri is autobiography of Babar.

3. Battle of Kanwah was fought between Babar & Rana Sanga.

4. Battle of Chanderi was fought between Babar & Medni Rao.

5. Humayun succeeded to throne in 1530A.D. At Amarkot a son named Jalal-ud-din.

6. Akbar was born to Humayun wife’s , Hamida Banu.

7. Shershah Suri defeat Humayun two times, one at Chausa in 1539AD. & another time at Kannauj in 1540AD. Shershah built G.T. Road from Calcutta to Peshawar.

8. Vasco da Gama of Portugal reach India in 1498

9. The original inhabitants of America are called Red Indians.

10. Akbar was crowned at the age of 13th year. Bairam Khan, the tutor & guardian of the Prince, became Akbar’s Reagent.

11. In the 2nd Battle of Panipat, 1556A.D. Akbar defeat Hemu.

12. In 1562A.D., Jodha Bai the princess of Ajmer married to Akbar.

13. Battle of Haldighati near Gounda was fought between Akbar & Rana Pratap. Rana Partap was defeated & he escaped, mounted on his beloved hourse Chetak..

14. He built Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri to commemorate his conquest of Gujrat.

15. Akbar attack Ahmadnagar , kingdom was bravely defended by Chand Bibi. Akbar’s friend & poet died in 1595A.D.

16. Salim elder son of Akbar killed Abul Fazal in 1602A.D.

17. Akbar died on 17th October, 1605 at the age of 63. He was buried near Agra in a tomb at Sikandra.

18. Akbar introduced the Manasbari System. Every officer was called a Mansadar. The Wazir (the head of revenue) & the Mir Bakshi ( pay master of army) were the two most important officials.Mir Saman looked after the royal household. The Qazi acted as a Chief Judge. The Sardar-I- Sardar kept a record of the charitable grants given by the emperor. The emperor used to hold meeting with his senior officers in the Dewan-I-khas. The kotwal was incharge of the town administration. Akbar introduced a system of Dashala.

19. Raja Todar Mal was incharge of the revenue & land assessment.

20. Akbar issued a gold coin called Mohur.

21. Abul Fazal wrote Akbar Nama (account of Akbar’s life) ,Ain-I-Akbari , deals with the law & revenue system.

22. Faizi was a poet & wrote in Persian. Akbar got the Ramayana & the Magabharata translated from Sanskrit to Persian.

23. Keshav, Rahim, Surdas, Tulsidas (Ramcharitmanas )were the great Hindi poet of this period.

24. Tansen ,the famous musician & singer, was another gem of Akbar’s court. He sang many Hindustani Ragas, of which Raj Darbari & Deepak Rag are very famous.

25. Akbar built a new capital city at Fatehpur Sikri, near Agra. He built several buildings such as Diwan-I-Khas, the Panch Mahal & Jodha Bai’s palace. He also built Humayun’s tomb at Delhi & Govinda Dev Temple at Vrindavan.

26. In 1575A.D. Akbar built Ibadat Khana at Fateh Sikri.

27. In 1582A.D. Akbar introduced new religion Din-I-ilahi.

28. Akbar’s nine gems: also called Nav-Ratnas. Abul Fazal, Faizi, Rahim, Todar Mal, BirBal, Tansen, Raja Man Singh, Faqir Azio Din & Mullan Do Piaza.

29. Persian books were written in Nastaliq script.

30. Akbar died in 1605A.D. after ruling India for 50 years.

31. Akbare empire was divided into 15 Provinces.

32. Slim Akbar’s eldest son took the title of ‘Nur-ud-din Jahangir’ or the ‘conqueror of the world’.

33. Tuzuk –I-Jahangiri are memoirs of Jahangiri.

34. Guru Arjun Dev ( who built the famous Golden temple at Amritsar & compiled Adi Granth, the holy book of Sikhs) was tortured to death by Jahangir in 1606.

35. Khurram became successful in capturing Kangra in 1622.

36. Jahangir married Nurjahan in 1611, original name was Mehr-ul-Nisa & was a widow. Nurjahan ruled Jahangir’s empire during the last 16 years of his reign.

37. William Hawkins of England visited India in 1608.

38. In 1615 Sir Thomas Roe came to India as ambassador of the English King, James 1& succeeded in getting the trade concession from the Mughal King. He got the permission to set up a factory at Surat.

History, Muslim invasion onwards

1. Muhammad Bin Qasim invaded Sind & Multan in 712 A.D.

2. Mahmud (rular of Ghazni) was the first Turk invader .He attacked India 17 times during the course of 25 years (1001-25 A.D.). Mahmud attacked Nagarkot in 1009AD. He attack Somnath temple in Kathiawar in 1025 A.D.. Many scholars lived at his court such as Firdausi , the author of Shahnama , a biography of Mahmud. Al Beruni was also a great scholar of his times.

3. Muhammad Ghori:- defeat Prithviraj Chauhan in the second battle of Tarain. He appointed Qutab-ud- din Aibak as his governor. In the first battle Prithiviraj defeated Muhammad Ghori in 1191 A.D.

4. The period from 1206-1526 A.D. is known as the Sultanate Period.

5. Early rulars are called the Mameluks or Slaves. So the whole dynasty is called the Slave dynasty.

6. The first Slave rular of Slave dynasty was Qutab-ud-din Aibak.(slave of Muhammad Ghori). He built two mosques – one at Delhi, called Quwat-ul-Islam, & the other at Ajmer called Dhai Din ka Jhompra. He also started construction of Qutab Minar, later completed by Illtutnish in 1210A.D.

7. Iltutmish was 2nd slave rular.(1210-1236A.D.)

8. Razia Sultan (1236-40A.D.) daughter of Iltutmish was 3rd rular of slave dynasty.

9. The group of nobles called “The Forty” raised Nasir –ud-din Mahmud to throne.(1246-1266)

10. Ghiyas-ud-din Balban (1266-86AD) - to face the foreign dangers, he adopted the policy of Blood & Iron .He was the greatest of the slave kings.In 1290 AD slave dynasty came to an end.

11. Jalal-ud-din Khilji (1290-1296) was the founder of Khilji Dynasty.

12. Ala-ud-din Khilji (1296-1316) . He formed a standing & strong army. He fixed the prices of all the comodities.Amir Khusro was a renowned poet of his court. He built Alai Darwaza near Qutab Minar.He built up as vast empire as that of Ashoka. Religion didn’t interfere in his administration. He attacked Chittor, captured its rular Rana Ratan Singh,and wanted Rani Padmini to join his harem.

13. Ghias –ud-din Tughlaq(1320-25) was the founder of Tughlaq dynasty.

14. Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq (1325-1351): He was a scholar of mathematics, philosophy, astronomy .He transferred his capital from Delhi to Devgiri. He introduced Copper coins, which were equal to silver Takka.

15. Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351-88) levied only four taxes i.e. Kharaj, Zakat, Jazia & Kham. He got 120 gardens planted in Delhi. He was first to impose Jazia on Non-muslims.

16. Amir Taimur (1398) invaded India.

17. Sayyid Dynasty was founded by Khizar Khan in 1414AD.

18. Bahlol Lodhi laid the foundation of Lodhi Dynasty.

19. Sikandar Lodhi made Agra as his Capital.

20. Ibrahim Lodhi. He was the last rular of Delhi Sultanate.

21. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in 1526 AD in the first battle of Panipat.

22. Sultan advisory body was known as Majlis-e-Khalawat. Advised by the Chief Qazi. The officials maintained all the records & collected revenue. The Bakshi was the pay- master of the army. The Qazi was the chief judge. The whole empire was divided into a large number of provinces. The provinces were divided into Shiqs & Shiqs divided into Parganas or group of villages. Muquaddam was the head of village administration.

Sunday, May 9, 2010

Making of constitution-10 States

PART – VI : The States & Special Provision relating to Certain Classes

1.Art152: - Definitions of State: In this part, the expression ‘State’ does not include the State of J & K which has been given special status under Art. 370.

2.Art 153: - Governors of States: There shall be a Governor for each state but the same person may be appointed as Governor of two or more States.

3.Art 154: - Executive power of State

4.Art. 155: - Appointment of Governor

5.Art 157: - Qualification for the appointment as Governor; a person shall be eligible to become a Governor of a State only if he is a citizen of India and has completed the age of 35 years.

6.Art 159: - Each person appointed as Governor shall, before entering upon his office; take before the Chief Justice of High Court an oath to the effect that he shall perform his duties faithfully and protect the constitution.

7.Art 161: - Power of Governor to grant pardons. The Governor does not have power to pardon a person convicted of a sentence of death. This power is exercised only by the President.

8.Art 163: - Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor.

9.Art 165: - Advocate General

10. Art 167: - Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor etc.

11. Art 169: - Abolition or creation of Legislative Council in States.

12. Art 170: Composition of Legislative Assemblies. There shall be not more than 500 and not less than 60 members in a legislative assembly. Exception Sikkim – 32, Goa – 40, Mizoram – 40 Arunachal Pradesh- 40 Pondichery -30.

13. Art 171: Composition of Legislative councils.

14. Art 172: - Duration of State Legislature, - 5 years from the date of its first meeting after election. However, the term of Assembly may be extended by Parliament by law for a period of one year at a time during operation of National Emergency and not more than 6 months, in any case, after the proclamation of Emergency has ceased to operate.

15. Art 175: - Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses.

16. Art 176: - Special address by the Governor.

17. Art 178: - The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative assembly.

18. Art 213: -Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances during recess to Legislature. If the Legislature of the State is not in session and the governor feels the urgency of a law, he may issue ordinances having the force of al aw enacted by the legislature. However, the said ordinance shall cease to be effective after the expiry of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature unless approved by the Legislature within the prescribed period of six weeks from the first day of the beginning of the session.

19. Art 214: - High courts for States.

20. The Legislative Council in Andhra Pradesh has been abolished in 1985. and that of Tamil Nadu has been abolished in 1986.

21. Legislative Council exists in Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, U.P. and J& K.

22. Art 231: - Establishment of a common High Court for two or more states.

23. Art 330: Seats shall be reserved in the House of People for the SC/ST in proportion to their population.

24. Art 331: The President may nominate two members of the Anglo-Indian Community to the House of the People, if he is of the opinion that this community is not adequately represented in the House of People.

25. Art 332: Seats shall be reserved in the legislative assembly for the SC/ST in proportion to their population.

Wednesday, May 5, 2010

Important Quotations - Britain

1. British Parliament can do everything but cannot make a man a woman and a woman a man – Dr. Lome.

2. “Conventions are obeyed because of political difficulties which follows if they are not” – Dr. Jennings.

3. “ Conventions clothes the dry bones of law with flesh and make the legal constitution work and keep it abreast of changing social needs and political ideas” – Ogg and Zink.

4. “Cabinet is the most important piece of mechanism in the structure of the British Government” – Munro.

5. “ PM is the shining moon among the lesser stars” – William Vernon Hercourt.

6. “PM is the key stone of the cabinet arch” – Sir John Marley.

7. “The British PM knows the leader of the opposition better than he does his own wife” – George Bernard Shaw.

8. ‘Cabinet is the keystone of the political arch” – Ramsay Muir

9. “The Cabinet is the steering wheel of the ship of the State” – Ramsay Muir.

10. “The Cabinet is a hyphen that joins, the buckle that binds the executive and legislative department together “ – Begehot.

11. “ The British constitution is a child of wisdom and of chance” – Munro

12. “The English constitution is a living organism. It is always growing with a view to meeting the necessities of the people. It is not a pudding made out of recipe” – Ogg.

13. “Conventions are unwritten maxims of the constitution” – J.S.Mill.

14. “Conventions are customs of the constitution” – Mr. Anson.

15. “Conventions do not exist for their own sake; they exist because there are good reasons for them” – Prof. Jennings.

16. “The Government of U.K. is in ultimate theory an absolute monarchy, in form a constitutional limited monarchy and in actual character a Democratic Republic” – Ogg

17. “The opposition is an integral and indispensable part of our working constitution” – Quinton Hogg.

18. ‘King can do no wrong” – Gladstone H.A.S. 2007

19. “The British cabinet is a wheel within Wheels” – Ramsay.

20. “The leader of opposition is the alternative PM” – Jennings.

21. “Cabinet is the child of Parliament but it leads the mother” – H.J. Laski.

22. “Second Reading is the time when the battle between friends and foes really begins” – Ogg & Zink.

23. ‘Parliament can do everything that is not naturally impossible” - Blackstone

Monday, May 3, 2010

Making of constitution-8 Vice President and Union Govt

1. Art. 63:- There shall be a Vice-President of India.

2. Art.64:- The Vice-President to be ex-Officio Chairman of the Council of States (Rajya Sabha).

3. Art 65:- The Vice Pr. Shall discharge the function of President during the temporary absence of the President, illness or any other cause by reason of which he is unable to discharge his functions. In 1969 when on the death of Dr. Zakir Hussain, the Vice Pr. V. V. Giri resigned, the Chief Justice Sh. Hidyatullah discharged the function of President.

4. Art.66:- The Vice-President is elected by an Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament.

5. Art 67:- Term and qualification of office of President: The term of office is five years. A formal impeachment is not required for his removal. He may be removed by a resolution of the Council of States passed by a majority of its members and agreed to by the House of Peoples.

6. Art 74: - There shall be a Council of Minsters with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President who shall, in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice.

7. Art 75:- President of India was not a real executive, but a constitutional head, who was bound to act according to the advice of Ministers, so long as they commanded the confidence of the majority in the house of the People.

8. Art 75(3): - The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the House of the People.

9. Art 75(2): - The ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the President.

10. Cabinet of American President is responsible to himself and not to Congress.

11. Art 76: - Attorney General for India. In England he is a member of Cabinet.

12. Art 78:- Duties of PM as respects the furnishing of information to the President.

13. Art 79:- Constitution of Parliament.

14. Art 80:- Composition of Council of State: - in the council of states, 12 members are to be nominated by the President from persons having special knowledge or practical experience of literature, science, art and Social Service.

15. Art 81:- Composition of House of Peoples. Not more than 530 representatives of the States and Not more than 20 representatives of Union Territories and Not more than 2 members of Anglo-Indian community, nominated by the President , if he is of opinion that the Anglo Indian community is not adequately represented in the House of the People.

16. The first Lok Sabha held its first sitting on 13-5-1952 .

17. The Rajya Sabha was first constituted on 03-04-1952 and it held its first sitting on 13-05-1952.

18. By 42nd Amendment Act 1976, the Indira Govt. extended the term of Lok Sabha to 6years but it has been reduced to 5 years by the 44th Amendment Act 1978.

19. Art 84: - Qualification for the membership of the Parliament.

20. Art 85:- Like English Crown our President shall have the power to summon or prorogue the Houses of Parliament and to dissolve the lower House.

21. Art 86: - Right of President to address and send message to houses.

22. Art 87:- The President shall address both houses of Parliament assembled together, at the first session after each general election to the House of the People and at the commencement of the first session of each year, and ‘inform Parliament of the causes of its summons’.

23. Art 89:- The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States.

24. Art 93:- The speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the Peoples.

25. Warrant of Precedence:- The President, The Vice President, The Prime Minister, Governor of States within their respective provinces, Former President, Deputy PM, Chief Justice of India , Speaker of Lok Sabha, Union Cabinet Minister, Union Minister of State, Union deputy Ministers.

26. The chairman and the Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha do not take oath of their respective offices, they only take oath as members of their respective Houses.

27. Art. 101:- If a member of either House of Parliament is absent from meeting of the House without permission for more than 60 days, his seat shall become vacant.

28. Art 102:- Disqualification of Membership under Anti-defection Act 1985 as given in 10th Schedule.

29. Art 103: - All questions to disqualification of members shall be decided by the President in consultation with Election Commission and his decision shall be final.

30. Art 105:- Immunities and Privileges of Houses of Parliament and of members and committees. Attorney General shall have a right of audience in all Courts in the Territory of India.

31. Art 108:- President has the power to summon a joint sitting of both house of Parliament in case of a deadlock between them. The Joint sitting shall not be summoned for the consideration of Money Bills and Constitutional Amendment Bills.

32. Art 109: - A money Bill shall not be introduced in the Council of States and the same shall return the Bill within 14 days from the date of receipt of the Bill, with or without its recommendations. The House of the People has the right to either reject or accept the recommendations of the Council of States.

33. Art. 110: - Definition of Money Bills. If any questions arises whether the Bill is a Money Bill or not the decision of the Speaker of Lok Sabha shall be final.

34. Art 112: - Annual Financial Statement i.e. Budget

35. Art 113:- Appropriation Bills: An Appropriation bill refers to the formal sanction of Parliament to Govt. to make expenditure out of the Consolidated Fund of India.

36. Art 115:- Supplementary, additional or excess grants.

37. Art 116: - Votes on account, votes of credit an exceptional grant.

38. Art 118:- The speaker shall preside over the joint sitting of the two houses of Parliament.

39. Art 120:- Language used in Parliament.

40. Art 122:- Courts not to inquire into proceeding of Parliament.

41. Art 123: - Power of President to promulgate Ordinance during recess of parliament.

42. Art 148: - Comptroller and Auditor General of India. He is to be the guardian of the Public purse and it is his duty to see that not a farthing is spends out of the Consolidated Fund of India. The term of Office of the CAG shall be 6 years.

43. Art 151: - Audit reports. Of the CAG is laid before the Parliament and is examined by the Public Account Committee.