Saturday, April 17, 2010

Indian History 1857 onwars

1. In 1866, Dadabhai Naroji founded “East Indian Association” in London.

2. The “National Indian Association” was founded in 1867 by Mary Carpentar.

3. The “Indian Society” was established in 1873 by Anand Mohan Bose in London.

4. Justice Ranade & others organized the “Poona Sarvajanik Sabha” in 1870’s

5. “ Indian Association” was founded in 1876 by S.N.Bannerji & Anand Mohan Bose.

6. “Madras Mahajan Sabha” formed in 1876 by G. Subramaniya Iyer & P. Anand Chandi.

7. “Bombay Presidency Association” – formed in 1885 by K.T. Telang & Pherozshah Mehta.

8. The Indian Association summoned an ALL INDIA NATIONAL CONFERENCE in Dec. 1883.

9. Allan Octavian Hume founded “Indian National Congress” in 1885. On 28 Dec. 1885 first meet
of INC held in Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College at Bombay, presided by Womesh Chandra
Bannerjee.The meet was attended by 78 members.

10. According to Safety Valve Theory, the INC was created by British Viceroy ( Dufferin).

11. The second session of INC met at Calcutta in Dec. 1886 under the Presidentship of Dadabhai Naroji.

12. The economic issues raised by Congress were based on the Drain of Wealth Theory propounded by Dadabhai Naroji.

13. Lala Lajpat Rai advocated technical education & industrial self help.

14. Bal Gangadhar Tilak start organizing the Ganapati festival from 1894.

15. Partition of Bengal – 1905 – lord Curzon.

16. The Congress took up the Swadeshi cell at its Banaras Session in 1905, presided by G.K.Gokhale.

17. The Congress during its Culcutta session in 1906, declared that the goal of the INC was “Self Govt.” - Presided by Dadabhai Naroji.

18. All India Muslim League was set up in 1906.

19. Congress split in 1907 – Surat Session.

20. Kennedy was murdered on April 30,1908 by Khudiram Bose & Prafulla Chaki ( real target was magistrate Kingsford of Muzzafarpur)

21. In 1904, V.D. Savarkar organized the Abhinav Bharat.

22. Madan Lal Dhingra assassinated Curzon Wyllie in July, 1909.

23. “Indian House” in London, was started by Shyamji Krishnavarma in 1905.

24. Ghadar Movement founded by Sohan Singh Bhakra began in 1913 in San Francisco.

25. The Indian Council Act of 1909 formally introduced the principle of elections for the first time.

26. The annulment of Bengal partition , announced by George V at Delhi Darbar in Dec. 1911.

27. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad started newspaper Al Hilal in 1912.

28. Bombay was the only province where Muslims had taken to commerce & education quite easily.

29. INC meet in August 1918 at Bombay under the president ship of Hasan Imam to consider the proposals of Montague Chelmsford.

30. An all parties conference appointed a sub committee in 1928 – whose members are Ali Imam, T.B. Sapru, S.C. Bose headed by Motilal Nehru.

31. “The only hope for India is from the masses. The upper classes are physically & mentally dead”: - Swami Vivekanand.

32. Bhulabhai Desai – was the advocate at the famous INA trials.

33. 1883- full codification of Indian System of Law & Procedure.

34. Illbert Bill – gave Indian magistrate the right to try European in Criminal cases.

35. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was referred to as the “Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity”– by Sarojini Naidu.

36.. In Nov. 1945, three former INA officers were charged with waging a war against the King- emperor : - Col Shah Nawaz , Captain Sehgal & Lt. Dhillon.

37. The first national Congress deliberated upon – nine resolutions concerning various issues.

38. “The sleeping giant of Asia has woken up & no power on the Earth can stop him now” – Lenin for the textile workers who came out on the streets in protest against Tilak’s transportation in July 1908.

39. The Justice party was launched by : - T.N.Nair, R.T. Chetti, C.N.Mudaliar.

40. Satya Shodhak Movement: - Jotirao Phule

41. Satya Shodhak Smaj : - Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj.

42. Council entry was the chief programme of the Swaraj Party.

43. Swaraj Party took part in the election in 1923,26.

44. In 1923, Swaraj Party gained absolute majority in C.P. Council.

45. M.A. Jinnah was willing to give up separate electorate in favour of joint electorate ( with certain conditions) at the time of Simon Commission.

46. It led to the estrangement of M.A.Jinnah, who called it a ‘parting of the ways’ with the congress, went back to the separate electorate & formulated his famous 14- points – Reference here is to Nehru Report.

47. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay write Anandmath in 1882.

48. R.C. Dutt is remembered as the pioneer of economic nationalism.

49. Bhartendu Harishchandra wrote the play, “Andher Nagri Chaupata Raja” .

50. The left wing within the congress emerged under S.C.Bose & Nehru’s initiative in the post non- cooperation period.

51. The Moplah rebellion of 1921 broke out in Kerela.

52. J.B. Kripalani was the Congress Pr. when India became free.

53. In 1929, the British Govt. announce for the first time dominion status as the goal of British Policy in India.

54. The Quit India Campaign was launched by he National Congress after the failure of Cripps Mission.

55. The first attempt at introducing a representative & popular element in the governance of India was made through the Indian Council Act, 1909.

56. The formation of an Interim Govt. set up on September 2, 1946 was first envisaged by Cabinet Mission Plan.

57. Leaders with the movements they were connected:
(i) Chakra Bisoi : - Khonds of Ghumsar (ii) Sido & Kanhu: - Santhal Rebellion. (iii) Radhakrishna Danda Sena : - Savare rebellion (iv) Tomma Dora: - Koya rebellion (V) Shambunath Pal: - Pabna uprising. (vi) Birsa Munda: - Munda revolt in Bihar.

58. Travancore, Hyderabad, Junegarh & Kashmir refused to join the Indian Union till the last moment.

59. Kuki Revolt: - Tripura, Kuka revolt: - Punjab, Pabna peasant revolt: - Bengal

60. In 1890, the first woman graduate of the Calcutta University , addressed the Congress Session : - Kadambini Ganguly

61. In 1905 – G.K.Gokhale – raised the demand for Swarajya or self governance within British Empire, from Congress platform.

62.The Muhammedan Anglo- oriental Defence Association (1893) was started by T.Beck.

63. Moderate politics was criticized in 1893-94 in a series of article entitled “New lamp for old” written by – Aurobindo Ghosh.

64. “We will not achieve any success in our labours if we croak once a year like a frog”: - B.G.Tilak.

65. In 1889: - Congress adopt the principle that it would not take up any proposal which was considered harmful to the Muslims by a majority of the Muslim delegates in the Congress.

66. The Ahrar movement was moved by the ideas of self governance, disliked the loyalist politics of the Aligarh school & big nawabs & Zamindars & advocated participation in the militant nationalism movement.

67. Mulana Abul Kalam Azad was the most prominent scholars of Deoband school: - who held the view that there was no conflict between Muslims & Nationalism.

68. B.G. Tilak played an important role in bringing together the Muslim league & congress in 1916.

69. When Congress ministers resigned in 1939 ( in protest over their not having been consulted over the decision to enter World War II. The Congress Working Committee suggested that it would cooperate if there were a central Indian national government formed, and a commitment made to India's independence after the war ): 22nd Dec. 1939 – was celebrated by Jinnah as the “Day of Deliverance”. The Day of Deliverance was also celebrated by B.R. Ambedkar & E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker. However Abdul Kalam Azad criticized the celebration.

70. Subhash Chandra Bose resigned from the Presidentship of the congress in 1939.

71. The Viceroy to be assassinated in India: - Lord Mayo.

72. William Bentick: - abolition of Persian as the court language.

73. Charles Metcafe : - Signing of a treaty with Ranjit Singh.

74. Ellenborough : - Annexation of Sind.

75. Delhousie: - Establishment of P.W.D.

76. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) was founded in 1927 by Birla & Thakurdas.

77. Jatindranath Mukherjee led the revolutionary Yugandhar Party which tried to conserve its resources & build international contact so as to organize a real military conspiracy at an appropriate time.

78. On Oct. 1940, the Individual Satyagraha was inaugurated by Acharya Vinoda Bhave.

79. S.C.Bose was unhappy with the Congress resolution at Ramgarh in March 1940 because Gandhi agreed to give support to the British war effort & he did not give a call for an immediate struggle.

80. The rating of RIN (Royal Indian Navy) went on a strike on 18 Feb, 1946. The strikers raised the National Congress, the League’s & the Red flag.

81. Vallabhbhai Patel & M.A. Jinnah persuaded the ratings of RIN to surrender on 23rd Feb, 1946.

82. The Warlis Tribal peasants Agitation : - support was provided by Maharashtra Kisan Sabha.

83. Bakasht Peasant agitation : - support was provided by – Bihar Kisan Sabha.

84. Travancore Agitation: - support was provided by the Communist.

85. Tebhaga movement: - support was provided by The Bengal Provincial Kisan Sabha.

86. The most enduring as well as most militant of the agitations originating in the period of 1945-47 was the Telengana Movement.

87. Strafford Cripps was a member of the Labour Party .

88. The Cabinet Mission was sent to India to establish a national government & to workout a constitutional arrangement for the transfer of power.’

89. The Untouchable ‘Mahars” launched an autonomous movement from 1920’s under B.R.Ambedkar to be allowed to take the sacred thread.

90. Jyotiba Phuyle’s Satyashodhak Smaj in the late 19th century undertook : - Separate representation for untouchable.

91. The Indian Council Act, 1909 provided to be the most short lived of all the British Constitutional experiment in India.

92. In March 1908, Agha Khan was elected as the “Permanent President”of the Muslim league.

93. Gokhale’s Servants of Indian Society launched in June 1905 have one of the aim as Swadeshi & boycott.

94. Rashbehari Ghosh was the Pr. of the Congress at the time of Moderate – extremist split.

95. In 1912- Muslim League adopt self – governance as one of its objectives.

96.On the Direct Action Day (16 August 1946) also known as the Great Calcutta Killing, unprecedented bloodshed took place as a result of Hindu – Muslim riots in – Calcutta . M.A. Jinnah announced the day " for the purpose of winning the separate Muslim state. Chief Minister of Bengal at that time was Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy. H.A.S. Exam

97. On Feb.20, 1947 PM Attlee announced the British Government’s decision to withdraw from India latest by June 1948.

98. The “August Offer” of 1940 sought to conciliate the Congress by guaranteeing the setting up of a representative Indian body to form a new constitution.

99. The Congress took a stand over the Montford Reform at Delhi in 1918, which led to a break away by old moderate remants – Sapru, Jayakar, & Chinamani who formed the National Liberal

100. The first definitely communist Journal to be published in India was – Socialist.

101. The Governor –General of India who initiated the introduction of English in India was – Lord Bentick.

102. Quit India Movement was adopted by INC in Bombay.

103. King George V visited India during the viceroyality of Lord Harding.

104. Govt. of India Act, 1935 gave representation to Indians for the first time in the legislature.

105. The first Muslim president of the INC was Badrudin Taybji.

106. A public meeting was held on 13th April, 1919 in Jallianwala Bagh to protest against the arrest of popular leader.

107. PC Roy set up the famous Bengal Chemical Swadeshi Stores during the Swadeshi movement.

108. Linthgow was the Viceroy of India when Quit India Movement started in 1942.

109. One act of the government that gave the nationalist organization the final push to acquire an organization form was : - Illbert Bill.

110. “My own belief is that the Congress is tottering , & one of my great ambitions is to assist it to a peaceful death” : - Lord Curzon.

111. The second session of RTC broke down on the question of separate electorates for the minorities.

112. In Hyderabad, a movement based on Gandhian principles became very popular in the rural areas. It provided vital support to the local Congress Party during the struggle for integration of Hyderabad with the Indian Union in 1947. The leader of the movement : - Swami Ramanand Tirth.

113 . J. L. Nehru became the president of INC : - 3 times.

114. In the Allahabad district in 1929, at a time of the worldwide economic depression; a ‘no-tax’ campaign on behalf of peasants was led by : - M.N.Roy.

115. Bhagat Singh shot Police Commissioner Saunders dead because he had led the lathi charge against he peaceful procession in the course of which Lala Lajpat Rai was injured.

116. M.K.Gandhi gave Vallabh Bhai Patel the title of ‘Sardar’.

117. Sarojini Naidu was the heroine of the 1942 Quit India movement.

118. To counteract unfavourable articles on India in the British Press & to supply authentic information, a journal named : - India was started in 1890.

119. In 1901 – five districts & the tribal area were taken away from Punjab to create the North-West Frontier Province.

120. Lord Hardinge II was the Governor – General of India who proposed the change of capital from Calcutta to Delhi.

121. The Communist Party was legalized in the year – 1942.

122. J.L.Nehru was the president of the Congress when it declared “ poorna swaraj” as its objective.

123. Gopal Hari Deshmukh was known as ‘Lokhitwadi’.

124. The British government summoned the first RTC in London to discuss the Nehru report.

125. The Indian Civil Service was introduced during the time of Lord Cornwallis.

126. The Life Divine, The Synthesis of Yoga,
Essays on The Gita, The Secret of The Veda, Hymns to the Mystic Fire , The Upanishads, The Renaissance in India, War and Self-determination, The Human Cycle, The Ideal of Human Unity, and The Future Poetry are the works of Aurobindo Ghosh.

127. In Alipore Bomb Case Sri Aurobindo Ghosh was defended successfully by
his Chitranjan Das.

128. Sri Aurobindo's close spiritual collaborator, Mirra Richard , came to be known as The Mother simply because Sri Aurobindo started to call her by this name. On being asked by why he called her the Mother, Sri Aurobindo wrote an essay called The Mother in order to shed light on the person of Mirra.

129. "If you want to know India, study Vivekananda. In him everything is positive and nothing negative." - Romain Rolland.

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