Monday, May 23, 2011

Biological Facts

1. The common name for Ascaris is round worm.

2. Respiration in arthropods occurs through gills, book lungs and trachea.

3. Devil fish is common name of octopus.

4. Tube feet is the locomotory organ of starfish.

5. Insulin which regulates blood sugar is a protein hormone, secreted by pancreas.

6. The function of protective proteins called antibodies is to help fight infection in our body. Gamma globulins present in blood is an example of protective proteins.

7. Coconut oil does not contain any essential fatty acid.

8. Sunflower seed oil contains maximum content of linoleic acid.

9. Vitamin A is formed in the liver from β-carotene, an orange- yellow pigment of carrots. Carotene also occurs in maize, spinach and papaya. A large quantity of vitamin A can be stored in the liver, enough to supply a person for many month.

10. Vitamin D facilitates absorption of calcium and phosphorus by intestine and their retention in the body and their utilization for bone and teeth formation.

11. Milk is one food item which contains both calcium and phosphorus.

12. Undigestible fibrous material present in the food is called roughage. Their main function is to absorb a great amount of water and to helps retain water in body :& adds bulk to the food and prevents constipation. The main source of roughage in human body is salad vegetables and fruits with skin and high fibre content.

13. Collagen is the most abundant protein in human body.

14. Dietary requirement of protein increases during lactation.

15. Iron is present in myoglobin.

16. Mottling of teeth occurs due to presence of fluorine element in drinking water.

17. Malaria is a communicable diseases. It spreads from infected person to healthy person by the bite of female anopheles. A drug named quinine, which is extracted from the bark of Cinchona tree, is used to treat a person suffering from malaria.

18. Jaundice or hepatitis is the diseases of liver. Hepatitis is spread mostly by food and water contaminated with hepatitis virus.

19. The bite of rabid dog and some other mammals such as monkey, cats, or rabbits may cause rabies, which is fatal. Patients develop fear of water, and as such disease is also called hydrophobia. Rabies can be treated with Pasteur’s treatment.

20. White blood cells make up 10% of the total volume of the blood.

21. Tuberculosis was first discovered by German scientist Robert Koch. It is an infectious disease which is communicable from one person to another directly or indirectly. It can affect all parts of body such as lungs, lymph, glands, bones intestines etc. BCG vaccine gives considerable protection against T.B.

22. Typhoid is most common infectious or communicable disease of India. It is caused by rod-shaped and motile bacterium, called Salmonella typhi which is commonly found in the intestine of human beings. Symptoms are fever, delirium, slow pulse, abdominal tenderness and rose coloured rash.

23. Kwashiorkor & marasmus diseases are caused by severe protein deficiency.

24. Dermatosis and cracking of skin at angles of mouth are indicative of riboflavin deficiency.

25. Pellagra is caused due to deficiency of vitamin niacin.

26. The Central Research Institute, Kasauli is the biggest and most important producer of immunoniologicals, for example DPT, anti-thphoid, anti-rabies, yellow fever vaccine and cholera vaccine.

Thursday, May 19, 2011

Biological Facts

1. Examples of unicellular organism – bacteria, amoeba, euglena, paramecium, yeast etc.

2. The viruses are an exception to cell theory.

3. An Ostrich egg is the largest animal cell.

4. Mitosis occurs in somatic cell.

5. Plant cells are bounded by a wall composed of cellulose.

6. Plasma membrane is present in all cells.

7. The largest cell in the human body is the nerve cell.

8. The term ‘cell’ was given by Robert Hook.

9. Cell Theory was first proposed by Schleiden and Schwann.

10. The power house of the cell is mitochondrion.

11. Lysosome is called the ‘digestive’ bag as these are the reservoir of hydrolytic enzymes.

12. Ribosomes are centre of protein synthesis.

13. Xylem conducts water and minerals from roots to aerial parts of the plant.

14. Phloem translocates prepared food (e.g. sucrose) from leaves to storage organs and growing parts of the body.

15. Tendons are cord like, strong, inelastic, structures that joins skeletal muscles to bones.

16. Ligaments are elastic structure which connects bones to bones.

17. The RBC carry oxygen to the tissues for the oxidation of food stuff.

18. Bone consists of Osteocyte cells.

19. Latex of the plant Achrar sapota yields chewing gum.

20. Parkinson’s disease is characterised by the loss of nerve cells in the cerebral cortex.

Thursday, May 12, 2011

Important Facts about Capital of H.P. - Shimla

1.Lt. Ross set up first British residence- a mere cottage of wood.

2. Lt. Charles Patt Kennedy- erected the first pucca house in 1822 A.D. He was C.O. of ‘Nasiri Battalion.

3. The first fun fair was held in Annadale in Sept 1833. Annadale’s legacy to Indian sport was the annual Durand Football Tournament – inaugurated by Sir Mortimer Durand in 1888.

4. The credit to introduce potato cultivation in Shimla Hills goes to Major Kennedy.

5. Jutogh was made a cantonment of British infantry in 1843.

6. Dagshai was made a cantonment of British infantry in 1847.

7. LAWRENCE ASYLUM was founded in Sanawar near Kasauli in 1847.

8. First Commander –in – chief of the Indian Army to visit Shimla – Lord Combermere in 1828.

9. Hindustan Tibet Road was constructed – by Lord Dalhousie in 1850-51.

10. Shimla was made Summer Capital of the RAJ in – 1864.

11. A.O.Hume founded INC in 1885 at the ‘Rothney Castle’.

12. The Town Hall was completed in 1888.

13. The Gaiety Theater was opened in 1887.

14. Kalka Shimla railway was completed under the supervision of the Chief Engineer – Mr.
H.S.Harringston. The longest tunnel was the “Barog Tunnel”- being 1143.61m in length. The railway line was opened for traffic on 31st March 1891 and passenger train was flagged off only on 9th November 1903.

15. Shimla’ Municipal Committee was first constituted in 1852. It was given the status of a first class municipality under the Act of 1867.

16. Octroi was levied for the first time in Shimla in 1875.

17. RIPPON HOSPITAL was designed by Henry Irwin and completed in 1885 and declared open by Lord Dufferin on May 14,1885.

18. Shimla Municipal Committee was replaced by Municipal Corporation in 1978.

19. Mahatma Gandhi first visited to Shimla on 11th May, 1921 and stayed at ‘Shanti Kutir” at Summer Hill. He was accompanied by Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya and Lala Lajpat Rai.

20. Samuel Evans Stokes wrote a book – Satyakam in 1927.

21. Gandhi came to Shimla in 1931 along with Nehru, Patel, Dr. Ansari and Frontier Gandhi.

22. Gandhi was greeted by Shimla with black flags in 1945.

23. Petterhoff- The High Court of Punjab- a former residence of the Viceroys- venue of trial of Gandhi’s killers. Destroyed in 1981.

24. Ellersile- Secretariat of Punjab Government – now Secretariat of Himachal Pradesh Govt. Indo – Pak Summit after 1971 war. Formal and informal meetings were held between the two delegations at the Ellersile and the Barnes Court (Himachal Bhawan).- served as the residence of Commander-in-Chief of the imperial Army.

Business & Economy

1. First Economic Census was held in – 1977.

2. 5th Economic Census was held in – 2005.

3. 6th Economic Census being held in 2011.

4. Chief Economic Advisor to Finance Minister – Kaushik Basu.

5. World Freest Economy- Hong-Kong.

6. The Ex-officio Secretary of NDC –Secretary, Planning Commission.

7. Consumer Protection Act was passed in 1986.

8. Corporation Tax is levied by the Union and belongs to it exclusively.

9. BRICS nation contribution to Global GDP – 20%

10. Country’s top taxpayer in the individual category – KJS Ahluwalia, mine owner in Orissa paid 95 crores as tax.

11. Portugal became third debt-stressed European country after Greece and Ireland to need a bailout.

12. India’s export increased by 37.5% in 2010-11. It is the fastest annual growth since independence. The strong growth was driven by higher exports to new markets in Latin America, Africa and Asia.

13. Micro, Small & Medium enterprises accounts for 45% of the country’s manufacturing output and 40% of exports.

14. Market regulator SEBI has raised the overall investment limit for foreign institutional investors (FIIs) in corporate bonds to $40billion.

15. Although the India had only 1.8% share in world manufacturing between 2000 & 2010 ,it has secured a place among the world’s 10 largest manufacturing countries according to UNIDO report.

16. Recently the union cabinet of india has approved the Bureau of Indian Standards (amendment) Bill 2011. The objective of the bill is to empower the government to make hallmarking mandatory.

Saturday, May 7, 2011

Important Places / Institutes / Events in H.P

1. Famous: - Institute/ Museums/ Places/ Events
(i) Linton Memorial: - Nahan (Sirmaur)
(ii) Quila Lohgarh: - Paonta Sahib (Sirmaur)
(iii) Rishi Kalpi Memorial: - Paonta Sahib.
(iv) Mahima Library: - Nahan
(v) Rajban Cement Factory: - Rajban Srimaur
(vi) Nahan Foundary Ltd. : - set up by Raja Shamshar – 1875.
(vii) Suketi Fossil Park: - Sirmaur.
(viii) Lion Safari: - Renuka
(ix) Subhash Baoli: - Dalhousie
(x) Bhuri Singh Museum: - Chamba
(xi) Sardar Ajit Singh’s Memorial: - Panjpulla (Dalhousie)
(xii) Sheep breeding Farm : - Sarol
(xiii) Indian Institute of Advanced Study: - Summer Hill Shimla.
(xiv) Central Potato Research Institute: - Kufri
(xv) IGMC: - Shimla
(xvi) H.P. Institute of Public Administration: - Fair Lawns.
(xvii) State Museum: - Shimla founded on 26 January,1974.
(xviii) Army Public School: - Dagshai
(xix) Mohan Meakin Ltd. : - Solan
(xx) Fish Breeding Farm : - Dyoli
(xxi) St. Jones Church: - Dharamsala – Lord Eligin II was cremated.
(xxii) Arjun Guffa , Rahla fall, Nehru Kund: - Manali.
(xxiii) Rudra Nag: - Bhunter
(xxiv) Apsara Kund: - Ajagar.
(xxv) Sati Pillar: - Mandi.
(xxvi) Agriculture co-operative Staff Training Institute: - Sangti.
(xxvii) Farmer’s Training Institute: - Sunder Nagar.
(xxviii) Regional Bee Research Centre: - Kangra
(xxix) Dhaulkuan: - Katasan Devi temple where Raja Jagat Singh defeated Gulam Quadir Rohilla.
(xxx) Ki- Monastery – Oldest & biggest monastery of Spiti.
(xxxi) Dankar Gompa: - Spiti.
(xxxii) Kalpa :- remain distt. H.Q. but in 1992 was shifted to Recong Peo.

2. Kamru : - Located in Baspa valley i.e. Sangla valley

3. Chitkul: - last & highest village in the Baspa valley.

4. Trilokinath & Udaipur are located in Pattan Valley. At Trilokinath there is a six armed images of Avalokiteshvara Bhoddisattava. Mrikula Devi temple is located at Udaipur.

5. Keylong:- Kardang :& Shashur Monastry

6. Shastra Dhara:- Confluence of river Yamuna & tons.

7. Quila Lohgarh: - Capital of Baba Banda Bahadur Bairagi.

8. Battle of Bhangani: - Guru Govind Singh defeated Raja Fateh Singh of Srinagar & ally.

9. Nahan was founded by Raja Karam Prakash in 1621.

10. Mahamay Bala Sundri Temple built by Raja Dip Prakash at Trilokipur.

11. Andretta: - home of Sardar Sobha Singh & Norah Richards.

12. Chinmaya Tapovan or Sandeepani Himalaya : - near Dharamsala.

The Little Lahasa of India : - Dharamsala.