Sunday, June 20, 2010

Important Amendments in Indian Constitution

1. First Amendment Act, 1951 : inserted articles – 31-A , 31-B. Added 9th schedule.


2. 24th Amendment Act : - Inserting Cl (4) in Art. 13; amended Art. 368. The object of the amendment was to clarify that the Parliament has the power to amend every part of the constitution. The intention was to wipe out the effect of Golak Nath case, After the Amendment the President is bound to asent to a constitution Amendment Bill.


3. 25th Amendment Act: - The jurisdiction of the courts to determine the adequacy of compensation on acquisition of property was taken away;


4. 35th Amendment Act: - Added 10th Schedule; Sikkim was made an associate state.


5. 36th Amendment Act: - Sikkim was made a full fledged state.


6. 42nd Amendment Act: - The power of judicial review of Courts was restricted; DPSP were given precedence over Fundamental Rights; Fundamental Duties were added; Term of Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha was raised from five to six years; Preamble was altered to add Socialist, Secular and integrity; The validity of the Constitutional Amendment cannot be questioned in any court – 368-(4); Quorum for the lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha removed. Established supremacy of parliament.


7. 44th Amendment Act: - The Fundamental Right to Property was abolished; the term of Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies of the State reduced to 5 years. It was provided that disputes relating to the election of the President and the Vice President shall be decided by the Supreme Court and that of election of member of Parliament and the State legislature shall be decided by the High Court. The National Emergency shall not be proclaimed except on the written recommendation of the Cabinet. The right to Life and personal liberty and he liberty of the press was restored.


8. 52nd Amendment Act:- Provision relating to the anti-defection law were added in the constitution.


9. 61st Amendment Act:- The minimum age limit prescribed to get voting right was reduced to 18 years from 21 years.


10. 69th Amendment Act: - The UT of Delhi was named as National Capital Territory of Delhi. It also provided for a 70 members state assembly.


11. 71st Amendment Act: - Nepali, Konkani and Manipuri languages included in the 8th Schedule.


12. 73rd Amendment Act: - Provision relating to the constitution, elections, finance and functions of Panchyat Raj Bodies.


13. 74th Amendment Act: - Provision relating to the constitution, elections, finance and functions of Municipalities.


14. 86th Amendment Act: - The new Art. 21-A deals with Right to Education to all children of the age six to fourteen years was added.


15. 87th Amendment Act: - The basis of delimitation of constituencies to be the population of 2001 in place of 1991.


16. 89th Amendment Act: - Provision for constitution of separate National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.


17. 91st Amendment Act: - The strength of Council of Ministers both at the centre and in states, to be fixed at 15% of the total membership of the lower house.


18. 92nd Amendment Act: - inclusion of Maithili, Bodo, Dogri and Santhali.


19. 93rd Amendment Act: - Reservation of admission in private unaided educational institutions for students belonging to SC/ St and OBC.


20. 94th Amendment Act: - Free Bihar from the obligation of having a tribal welfare minister and extended the same provision to Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. This provision will now be applicable to the M.P. and Orissa.


21. 98th Amendment Act: - is related to the constitution of National Judicial Commission.

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